The importance of community-based and participatory approaches to rural development in developing countries has long been emphasized. This book demonstrates how rural people can best participate in development projects when they are collectively organized. With the input of collaborators in the field, this book identifies the local social mechanisms that motivate and control people’s self-organizing activities.
This reader aims to inform, motivate and strengthen the practice of participatory action research. In the 21st century there is a growing demand to channel collective energy towards justice and equity in health, and to better understand the social processes that influence health and health systems. Communities, frontline health workers and other grass-roots actors play a key role in responding to this demand, in raising critical questions, building new knowledge and provoking and carrying out action to transform health systems and improve health. This reader promotes understanding of the term ‘participatory action research’ (PAR) and provides information on its paradigms, methods, application and use, particularly in health policy and systems. It seeks to explain:
• key features of participatory action research and the history and knowledge paradigms that inform it;
• processes and methods used in participatory action research, including innovations and developments in the field and the ethical and methods issues in implementing it; and
• communication, reporting, institutionalization and use of participatory action research in health systems.
As a tool to support understanding and learning, the reader uses explanatory text backed by references and resources. It includes examples of participatory action research across high, medium and low income settings and across all regions globally. It provides a selection of readings on the subject (in Part five).
Wealth-ranking is a participatory tool enabling people to group others in their community into wealth bands, and thus identify the very poor. The method has been developed to include the broader aspects of well-being – such as social standing and health – that people value as much as material wealth. It tells the story of the development of these assessment methods since the rise of wealth ranking in the 1980s and looks at the results of well-being ranking exercises and how they help identify important differences within communities and monitor changes in well-being over time. Exploring strengths and weaknesses of methods it suggests that understanding differences within communities is essential for good development aid work. The book goes on to describe the successful use of ranking tools over large populations and the value of using multi-dimensional models of well-being, and briefly explores the ideas used to make assessments of well-being at national levels.
This book is a collection of writings by evaluation professionals working in South Asia and aims to analyse and document the status of, and challenges for, development evaluation in this region. It covers three critical dimensions of making evaluation matter in development processes and change in South Asia: context, methods, and use. Drawing on a depth of experience from across the region it explores how the South Asian context influences the methods that are appropriate for evaluating policies, programs and projects, and the challenges to having evaluation findings used to influence and bring about change. Purchase details from Sage India.
Using participatory approaches in impact evaluation means involving stakeholders, particularly the participants in a programme or those affected by a given policy, in specific aspects of the evaluation process. The term covers a wide range of different types of participation and stakeholders can be involved in any stage of the impact evaluation process, including: its design, data collection, analysis, reporting and managing the study.
Bridging and Bonding: Improving the Links Between Transparency and Accountability Actors. Learning and Inspiration Event Report
This report came out of the learning and inspiration event held in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania from 26th - 28th May 2014, which was part of the Making All Voices Count programme. It is for participants and others with an interest in technology for transparency and accountability
Despite many initiatives to assure food access, and growing economies, high levels of undernutrition persist in much of Asia. In this Working Paper Robert Chambers and Gregor von Medeazza explore the increasing evidence that this is due to the continuing high incidence open defecation (OD), combined with population density, which has mulitiple debilitating outcomes. With the focus on diarrhoea-related ill health, there has been a relative neglect of other often subclinical and continuously debilitating faecally-transmitted infections (FTIs) including environmental enteropathy (EE), other intestinal infections, and parasites. The authors show how institutional, psychological and professional factors interact to perpetuate a blind spot to understanding that OD affects health in many different ways and is a key factor in tackling undernutrition.
Advocating for Evaluation: a toolkit to develop advocacy strategies to strengthen an enabling environment for evaluation
This toolkit contains guidance and tools on how to plan, design, implement, monitor and evaluate advocacy strategies to promote national evaluation policies and systems that are equity-focused and gender-responsive. It aims to help users understand the role of advocacy in increasing demand for evaluation, and develop operational strategies to promote demand for evaluation services.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that around 15 per cent of the world’s population, or one billion people, have some form of disability. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 80 per cent live in poor countries, where communities are already more vulnerable to disasters and crises such as Ebola epidemics, with people with disabilities often disproportionately affected.
This Paper explores the needs and rights of people with disabilities and the importance of including them in disaster risk reduction and emergency responses. It shows how accelerating progress will require inclusive humanitarian programming and the use of technological solutions to be effectively promoted and incentivised, and that people with disabilities and their organisations need to be involved from the outset in the design and implementation of policies and programmes.
This research report presents the findings of case study research with youth in six locations in Zimbabwe, carried out within the Power, Violence, Citizenship and Agency (PVCA) programme. It shows how young people experience growing up as citizens in a country known for its repressive regime, and highlights the differences for young men and young women.
Young people consider political violence as one of many forms of violence and other challenges they face in life. Election periods bring increased risk, when youth feel targeted. After the turbulence of elections has waned, surveillance by state security agents persists, affecting how young people use the public sphere. Between elections, forms of structural violence pose more challenges to youth than physical, political violence: patronage along party or ethnic lines is a major barrier to finding jobs, and generational differences deny young people a voice. High unemployment levels can result in youth participating in violence orchestrated by political actors.
This research shows also that family and peers have a strong influence on how young people choose to engage in the public sphere and respond to the polarised political environment. Youth empowerment strategies thus need to go beyond economic empowerment. This report argues that a shift in vision is required so that government, aid agencies and civil society recognise the importance of active citizenship among youth and make it a priority area for interventions. Programmes should build the citizen capabilities of young people and improve relations between them, their parents and communities, and public authority.
Design Paper for the impact evaluation of the Root and Tuber Improvement & Marketing Program (RTIMP)
This document, jointly authored by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and Participatory Development Associates (PDA), lays out the design of the impact evaluation of the Root & Tuber Improvement and Marketing Program (RTIMP) in Ghana. Aiming at improving rural poor people’s livelihoods in Ghana through the development of commodity chains for Roots and Tubers (R&T) supplied by smallholders, the RTIMP consisted of three main areas of work: a) linking of smallholders to old and new markets; b) enhancing smallholder R&T production; and c) enhancing smallholder R&T processing.
The content of this design paper is as follows. The first section briefly describes the impact evaluation approach called PIALA. The second section presents the RTIMP Theory of Change (ToC). The third section continues with the Data Collection Matrix (DCM) laying out the assumptions, evaluation questions and methods. The fourth section presents the multi-stage sampling strategy. The fifth section provided an overview of the methods used to inquire the various populations at different levels. The sixth section outlines the approach taken for data collation, quality monitoring, contribution analysis and rating. Finally, the last section shows the timeline for the evaluation. A bibliography, list of references and annexes are added at the end. The annexes include the desk review note, the sampling frame and procedure, the field research schedule, the district data collation table, and finally, the approved budget.
The Paper was primarily sponsored by IFAD, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Government of Ghana).
This books reflects about the use of participatory action research for social change; a methodology that is more a way of working that allows a diversity of groups and social actors to better understand the complexity and changing nature of the reality they live in, as well as being a process for enabling change. In a time of globalization, climate change, and constant change; active learning and action research are tools that social groupings can use for confronting such problems. The reflections contained in this book are based on years of experience using the participatory action research methodology in diverse rural regions of Mexico and other countries in collaboration with those groups that have been subject to different types of marginalisation and exclusion but that have taken action to change their situation.
This third issue of Voice for Change is focused on issues that thousands of sewerage workers in India face on a daily basis. They enter sewers to clean them manually with minimal safety equipment. They face instability because of the contractual nature of the work along with poor pay and benefits as well as general apathy from the State. Their voices amplify various issues ranging from discriminations of caste to the undignified manner in which they are treated, from the hazardous nature of their work to indifference to their plight, and culminate in a a series of demands.
These facilitation cards are suggestions of activities that can be integrated into ongoing adaptation processes. It is important to choose appropriate process for the overall learning process that is being facilitated. The activities are grouped into 5 different categories and can be adjusted and mixed as needed. These are: Overall Process; Energizing; Exploring Contents; Planning, and Monitoring.
Participatory Adaptation Handbook: a practitioner's guide for facilitating people centred adaptation to climate change
This book has been compiled by a group of practitioners from South Africa, Ethiopia and Germany, and draws on their collective experiences in supporting local communities in adapting to increasing climatic variability and change. It aims to meet the widely expressed need amongst practitioners for a comprehensive tool that will support practical adaptation interventions.
The approach taken in this book is rooted in Participatory Action Research (PAR), which recognises that the people who are affected (in this instance) by climate variability and change are not only primarily responsible for determining and implementing responses within their own enterprises and communities, but also have a right to do so. If they are enabled to do so with the benefit of suitable technologies, accurate information, state of the art predictions and supportive institutions, they are far more likely to do so in ways that are effective and appropriate.
The book is organised into discrete sections to make it easy to access and use the information and tools that will be best suited to needs and requirements at different stages of conceptualising, planning and implementing adaption processes and interventions.