The document is in three parts. Part I reviews some definitions and concepts of participation in situation analysis and planning. Some field experiences with more-or-less rapid approaches to planning, including monitoring and evaluation, are presented and the difficulties and responsibilities which these entail are discussed. A number of recommendations are made regarding methods which can be used during different stages of the planning process, and regarding training in participatory methods. In Part II the methods used and their purpose in participatory planning are briefly described.
The paper reviews experiences of participatory planning with pastoralists. It looks at the specific needs of pastoral planning and discusses how planning with pastoralists differs from that in agricultural settings. The paper also discusses some of the problems and limitations of participatory planning, and some of the ethical issues raised in the process. It concludes that most RRA/PRA methods can be useful in planning with pastoralists if applied in a flexible way. However, some concepts used in planning with settled farmers are not suited to mobile herders.
Browse Quality and Availability in a Farming Area and a Grazing Reserve in the Nigerian Subhumid Zone
The study investigated browse availability and utilisation within the agropastoral system being researched by the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA) programme in central Nigeria. Previous research has shown that browse - that is, the foliage and fruit of trees and shrubs used as forage - is an important forage resource in the area. The study found that a wide range of woody species are eaten by pastoral cattle. Chemical analysis of samples of browse revealed marked differences in chemical composition between individual species as well as between browse and other feedstuffs.