This report investigates the effectiveness of NGOÆs strategies and methods to influence land policy reform. It is based on a study of seven NGOs promoting land reform and land rights in Mozambique and Kenya. A number of key questions were explored: do NGOs influence policy or are structural, institutional and political constraints too great? should NGOs maximise their own advocacy roles or focus on building the advocacy capacity of less powerful groups? can NGOs engage with government without compromising their independence?
This report, produced by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), is the first title in the Policy and Planning Processes series, and is the result of an internal learning exercise within IIED on participatory approaches to research and development. The report details the steps that IIED took to carry out the internal review and it illustrates the complexity of 'practising what we preach'.
The article, as part of the special 50th issue of PLA Notes, provides a general reflection on participatory development from a gender perspective and looks to future challenges. The article begins by laying out the case for a focus on gender issues, and then discusses the tensions between gender perspectives and participation.
This paper draws out lessons from gender mainstreaming work for those who seek to institutionalise participation. The author begins by discussing the shift from Women in Development (WID) to Gender and Development (GAD) and the conceptual frameworks that contributed to this process. The strategies used to mainstream gender, with achievements and challenges are then examined.