This book presents agroecosystem analysis as a methodology for dealing with the complex interactions of agriculture and environment. The first chapter discusses these linkages, and suggests that they should be understood as systems, whose analysis requires multidisciplinarity. In contrast to farming systems research and integrated rural development approaches, the agroecosystem analysis approach developed in the rest of this book can deal with all levels in the hierarchy of agroecosystems, and focuses on trade-offs between different measures of performance. The key concepts behind this approach are introduced in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 discusses agroecosystem analysis for research. Processes and stages of research exercises using this approach are explained. Chapter 4 discusses agroecosystem analysis for development action. The procedures are modified to make it action focused and less time consuming. This involves adoption of RRA methods which are introduced. The final chapter discusses challenges for agroecosystem design, technology assessment and development and implementation which arise from agroecosystem analysis.