This paper draws out lessons from gender mainstreaming work for those who seek to institutionalise participation. The author begins by discussing the shift from Women in Development (WID) to Gender and Development (GAD) and the conceptual frameworks that contributed to this process. The strategies used to mainstream gender, with achievements and challenges are then examined. This is followed by a discussion of the shifts from participation per se to governance, suggesting that the shift from æwomen in developmentÆ to ægender and developmentÆ is mirrored by a shift from æparticipationÆ to ægovernanceÆ, with a greater focus in both on a relational perspective, policy processes and institutions. The tensions between gender mainstreaming and participatory development are explored and ways of bridging the gaps between ægenderÆ and æparticipationÆ are suggested. The author argues that renewed alliances with emerging movements and more critical perspectives are required to prevent the cooption of visions and weakening of values which underpin efforts to mainstream both a gender perspective and participatory approaches to development and social change.
IIED and IDS