This draft paper provides a useful discussion of some of the main analytical and theoretical themes surrounding the concept of participation in connection with evaluation of development activities [N.B it does not look specifically at methods]. Comparing the 'mode of evaluation' characterising 'conventional development projects' with that of the emerging set of 'participatory evaluation' approaches, the author builds a workable framework through which he can ask the key questions concerning "why, when, and how" participation in project evaluation should occur. In answering these questions, emphasis is put on the development of an approach in which both internal (or participatory) and external methods of evaluation are seen to be complementary. Importantly, however, such a framework can only truly work if long term, local level, participation is seen occur through the entire project cycle; only then argues the author, can 'participatory evaluation methods' realize their full potential.
This paper may be of particular interest to project level policy makers, managers, and planners since it serves to clarify some of the analytical and theoretical issues surrounding the use of PM&E. Researchers and academics might also find the article of some value.