The document is in three parts. Part I reviews some definitions and concepts of participation in situation analysis and planning. Some field experiences with more-or-less rapid approaches to planning, including monitoring and evaluation, are presented and the difficulties and responsibilities which these entail are discussed. A number of recommendations are made regarding methods which can be used during different stages of the planning process, and regarding training in participatory methods. In Part II the methods used and their purpose in participatory planning are briefly described. Reference is also made to field experiences with these methods. Part III consists of an annotated bibliography, of which the main part is devoted to works on participatory planning with pastoralists, with a smaller sample of general works on PRA methods. The abstracts highlight the methods related to participatory planning. Finally, further information on relevant contact organizations and periodical sources of information are provided in the Annexes.
This state-of-the-art-review is intended for governmental and non- governmental development agency staff, policy makers and training institutions, although will also be a useful resource for researchers and others with an interest in or working with pastoralists.