This documents reviews the monitoring and evaluation of development projects, with particular emphasis on participatory philosophies and methodologies. The majority of the literature derives from a review of the existing literature. The primary objective of the document aims to present a review of the current 'state of the art' and explains the terminology commonly employed, whilst the following sections discuss the common conceptual approaches and consider the process for establishing systematic monitoring and evaluation. The final section includes recommendations for possible future action on the part of CONCERN. The review concentrates largely on exploring important theoretical issues related to participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation.