This book aims to provide a source of information on the key issues and constraints and capacity building necessary to implement participatory approaches in China today. It provides case studies from Chinese academics and practitioners in forestry, natural resource management, rural development, irrigation and poverty alleviation. It primarily aims to be about strengthening local government as a key player in the development of participatory initiatives.
Promoting the welfare of working animals is important not only for the sake of the animals themselves, but for the livelihoods of their owners. Sharing the Load aims to stimulate collective action among animal-owning communities to improve the health and husbandry of their draught and pack animals, by applying the methods of community facilitation and collective action to the pursuit of animal welfare. Since 2005, the Brooke has been pioneering the integration of animal welfare science with best practice from the international development sector to build communities’ responsibility for sustained improvement in the welfare of their working animals. Sharing the Load documents the outcome of four years’ development of this process and includes field-based participatory methods and tools designed specifically for this purpose, using lively illustrations and text boxes in accessible language on the theory of development practice and animal welfare science.
Not about knowledge, but numbers? An examination of the notion of stakeholder participation and the governance of water as a 'scarce resource' in global and national policy discourses on development and security
This paper draws on case study material from Zimbabwe to examine the nexus between ædevelopment expertiseÆ on water management and technological innovation, and the recent emphasis in development on local participation. An examination is made of the ways in which water as a scarce resource has featured in global and national policy discourses, and the attention paid to the governance of water and stakeholder participation. An examination is also undertaken against the backdrop of recent conceptual work on science, technology and risk, and draws connections between the local, national, and international environmental security.
This article reports the results of a collaborative research effort carried out in 1982-84 by the International Fertilizer Development Centre (IFDC) and the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), in Colombia, to determine the agronomic potential of local phosphate materials identified in experiment sation research, in the soils, climate and management conditions found on small farms in Colombia. The paper evaluates three approaches to farmer participation differentiated by the extent to which farmers participated in defining criteria for the design of on-farm fertilizer trials. The three methodologies are described, and the resultant experimental designs are compared in terms of their criteria for testing fertilizers under small farm conditions. The results show that increased scope for farmer participation produced significant changes in the design of on-farm trials due to important insights into how farmers themselves would evaluate fertilizers, and raised basic research questions about improvements in the technology. The paper concludes that farmer participation in experimental design for on-farm trials requires fewer resources and less time than diagnostic survey research while qualitatively improving feedback between scientists and farmers.
Rapid Rural Appraisal: a Participatory Problem Formulation Method Relevant to Australian Agriculture
This paper discusses the initial trial application of RRA to agricultural research and development in Australia. It is suggested that the concepts which underpin RRA and the range and richness of outcomes make it a relevant tool for the formulation of problems for agricultural research and development in northern countries. A model for future agronomic research which has emerged from the RRA experiences and which incorporates RRA is proposed. This model, which focuses on farmer participation in the research process, is seen to offer greater potential for sustainable agricultural development than the increasingly questioned linear 'transfer of technology' model.
The paper reports the results of a survey of 41 practitioners who where asked to report on the methods they were using on their projects, and the reasons for their success or failure. Most importantly this conventional approach to farming systems research failed to incorporate the experience and knowledge of farmers into its survey design. It is concluded that simple research questions can often provide the needed information in order that technologies useful to resource poor farmers are developed. [Abstract based on mimeo version]