Participatory methods were used during a survey carried out by VetAid project staff at the request of an agro-pastoral community in Daye Chopan District in Afghanistan. The survey aimed to identify decision-making processes in the community, the problems of different wealth groups, physical and cultural restraints, and indigenous technical knowledge. The methods used included wealth ranking, direct matrix ranking, disease ranking, fodder ranking and seasonal calendars. The survey brought to light a severe animal health problem which affected the poorest members of the community most severely. Consultation with community leaders about ways of solving this problem resulted in a project for training livestock keepers to treat, prevent and control the most serious diseases, as ranked by the community.