Adapting to the local context: lessons learnt from external facilitation
These tools include manuals and practical guides for project managers and trainers working mainly in eastern and southern Africa.
Community-Leave No One Behind (CLNOB) is a new participatory approach to identify both challenges and solutions in communities’ journeys towards ODF-S.
It has been designed to be integrated into Phase II of the Swachh Bharat Mission-Grameen (SBM-G). The government of India has issued the guidelines for Phase II of SBM-G, of which one of the guiding principles is ensuring that no one is left behind. CLNOB demonstrates a way to achieve this goal. It encourages communities to identify gaps in sanitation coverage and use and promote actions they can take themselves.
CLNOB builds on experiences with Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and with the Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G)’s ‘Community Approaches to Sanitation (CAS)’. These approaches have helped communities towards achieving open defecation free (ODF) environments; however, it has been acknowledged that ODF status has deficiencies.
The purposes of this handbook are two-fold: first to inform policymakers and stakeholders at all levels about this new initiative, and second to provide guidance to facilitators and practitioners for CLNOB implementation. This handbook is a living document and will be updated and refined after more field experiences are conducted. It is based on limited experience from a small pilot carried out between June and October 2020 during the challenging environment of the COVID-19 pandemic.
For Annexes on suggested talking points, a sustainability register, case studies and information on informed consent and data protection, click here to download (PDF).
In 2020, WSSCC’s India Support Unit (now UNOPS) piloted a new participatory approach called Community Leave No One Behind (CLNOB) to support the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G) Phase II. This Sanitation Learning Hub learning brief outlines the purpose of CLNOB, the actions generated by the pilot and our reflections of the CLNOB approach.
The pilot took place in five districts in India (Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh, Ranchi in Jharkhand, Kamrup in Assam, South 24 Paragnas in West Bengal and Purnea in Bihar). A Prerak (facilitator) was appointed in each district to support this process and work within villages at community level. The Sanitation Learning Hub supported an accompanying learning component of the pilot, facilitating learning sessions between the preraks and the development of a Handbook based on the experience.
This learning brief outlines the purpose of CLNOB, the actions generated by the pilot and our reflections of the CLNOB approach. The CLNOB Handbook, a handbook on Community Leave No One Behind, accompanies this Learning Brief. CLNOB was designed to ensure a participatory method to enable sustained access to safely managed sanitation facilities for people who have been ‘left behind’ or left out of the first phase of India’s national sanitation campaign.
These guidance notes intend to inform and support all who seek to sponsor, convene, facilitate and report on Rapid Action Learning (RAL) workshops anywhere in India and to contribute to the quality, sustainability and timely implementation of the national Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) campaign (this translates to clean India mission).
They are primarily for districts convened at divisional level but can also be adapted for blocks at district level and drawn on for workshops at state and national levels. They draw on the approach, methods and lessons learnt so far through previous RAL workshops in India.
These facilitation cards are suggestions of activities that can be integrated into ongoing adaptation processes. It is important to choose appropriate process for the overall learning process that is being facilitated. The activities are grouped into 5 different categories and can be adjusted and mixed as needed. These are: Overall Process; Energizing; Exploring Contents; Planning, and Monitoring.
This publication responds to the demand for guidance on how to conduct training of community-led total sanitation (CLTS) facilitators. The fast spread of CLTS to now over 40 countries means that the demand for good facilitators and trainers of facilitators currently outstrips supply. As CLTS requires a special kind of facilitation, it also calls for a different type of training of facilitators. Training always has to be hands-on, in real time, through triggering in communities and lead to emergence of open defecation free (ODF) villages.
The guide includes much useful information on how to organise and conduct CLTS training of facilitators, as well as how to follow-up, and thereby hopes to spread good practice. It is intended for immediate use by trainers around the world. It will also be helpful for those who manage and supervise trainers and facilitators in terms of giving them insight into the different ways CLTS facilitation and training work, allowing them to appreciate the flexibility, specific support needs and special ways of working that CLTS entails.
The Trainers’ Guide encourages trainers to innovate as appropriate and to add to the core principles and practices outlined in this manual.
An intentional focus on gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) is key to sustainable and effective Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) projects.
This guidance is for staff of WASH implementation and research projects and organisations, who are committed to improving the practice of GESI in their projects and organisations.
What is this tool for? To support individual and collective reflective practice among staff on the extent and quality of gender equality and social inclusion work in their WASH projects and organisation.
Who should use this tool? Anyone working on WASH implementation or research projects that wants to improve (GESI) practice.
Who needs to be involved in the process?
How long does the process take?
This publication is also available in French and Portuguese:
This book provides 21 sets of participatory ideas and activities for facilitators, trainers, teachers and anyone who organises and manages workshops, courses, classes or other events for sharing and learning, and in particular for people wishing to approach this in a lively and interactive fashion. The book is divided into six parts, part 1 begins with a brief overview of the basics, part 2 provides ideas for the beginning, middle and end of a participatory workshop, including ideas for getting started, energizers and ideas for evaluation, part 3 is entitled Messing Up and prepares even the most experienced facilitator for unforeseen eventualities, part 4 provides practical tips for group work, seating arrangements and coping with large numbers, part 5 covers analysis and learning and part 6, behaviour and awareness. There is also a section at the end providing source ideas for trainers and facilitators. This book is designed to make sharing, learning and teaching more participatory, enjoyable and effective, and can be used in a wide range of organisations, for an equally diverse range of reasons.
Over the past few years, the Sanitation Learning Hub, in collaboration with the Government of India, Praxis, WSSCC and WaterAid India, have been developing Rapid Action Learning approaches. Multiple approaches have been trialled, with flexible formats, but the essential criteria is that learning is timely, relevant and actionable.
These learning approaches are the focus of the latest edition of the Frontiers of Sanitation series. This Frontiers explains the advantages and disadvantages of the approaches trialled and sets out a challenge to those working in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector to:
To commemorate and reflect on the publication, the Hub sat down with colleagues and partners WaterAid India and WSSCC to discuss lessons learned and the future of Rapid Action Learning. You can watch these five short videos in the playlist below.
This manual is designed for trainers and facilitators who have an interest in improving the facilitation skills of field workers in the context of community forestry development. The manual is designed as part of a facilitation training package supported by a training video that helps the trainer bring real life scenes from the field into the classroom. The training sessions described have been effectively used within a wide range of audiences all over Asia, including field workers, extension workers, college teachers and managers. Practical suggestions are given for how to adapt and use the manual for different target groups and contexts. The focus of the manual is on the facilitation of groups and group processes in meetings. The manual is divided into 9 main sections, including preparing for the job; setting the context of the training; participatory decision-making; facilitation fundamentals; core roles of a facilitator; practicing facilitation skills; integrating skillsÆ optional sessions and annexes.|The video lasts for 2 hours and is designed to accompany the training manual. It consists of a series of short film clips that are self-contained and can be watched separately. Each clip shows a sequence of scenes of a facilitator in action or interviewed reflecting on their experiences. The video is divided into 4 main sections: basics, roles, challenges and skills. Within each section, specific issues are addressed such as what is facilitation; role of the facilitator; attitudes and group dynamics; integrating tools into the meeting process; dealing with controversial issues; dealing with dominance and facilitating multi-stakeholder meetings; facilitating reflection and using energisers.