This book reflects upon the introduction, implementation, and assessment of a participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) training program in China. It documents a PM&E training process in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, China, illustrating how PM&E can strengthen the learning and accountability of research teams and, consequently, the effectiveness of their research work. The training programme was part of a the International Development Research CentreÆs community-based natural resource management programme, and involved the Kunming Institute of Botany and the Guizhou academy of Agricultural Sciences and Community-based Natural Resource Management. Some of the issues dealt with in the programme was watershed management; accessing and distributing water resources; natural resources management; and rural development. Through the proceedings of several workshops and practical experiences from the field, the book examines the processes of: learning by doing; building a common understanding; and PM&E. Using concrete examples, the book shows that it is not only what is being assessed that matters, but also who is doing the assessment and for whom the assessments are intended.