This article looks at the extent youth participation in four evaluation projects. It presents case study data from the projects, two of which were conducted in highly participatory programmes, and two that had little youth participation but had a participatory evaluation process. The first of the projects took place within The Center for Young Women's Development, a youth-run harm reduction programme that employs young homeless women. The second evaluation project focused on the Town Youth Participatory Strategy, a youth-led drop in centre serving low-income Caucasian youth in rural Ottawa. The next was a coalition of youth programmes that had come together to evaluate the juvenile justice system in San Francisco. The final case study focused on a youth drop-in centre serving street children in an urban city in Canada. The article gives details of all the projects and their effect on the young people, with quotes from the young people themselves.
Discusses the methods of collecting information during a field-study carried out in Brazil, in the health district of Pau da Lima. It was intended to provide a learning experience for students as well as to explore the local potential for Primary Environmental Care (PEC) and to produce a number of recommendations to local bodies. Possible actors, conditions, means and resources to promote PEC within the Pau da Lima district were investigated. PEC integrates three components: empowering communities, protecting the environment, and meeting needs. The first step was a preliminary identification of present and future potential actors in PEC in the Pau da Lima district. A Rapid Appraisal (RA) was conducted in three squatter communities within the district, focusing on felt problems; interests and priorities in PEC; forms and conditions of community organisation; and instances and conditions of community-based action. Methods used include: review of secondary data, informal disucssions with informants, direct observations, laboratory analysis of water samples collected during the observation walks, life history interviews, focus groups and ranking exercises, semi-structured interviews. While the study found the RA methods useful, it suggested that they may not be sufficient to identify community-based solutions to specific problems. The techniques in "Making Microplans" (Goethert and Hamdi 1988) provide an example of how this action-oriented phase could proceed.