People's Participation in Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Development Programmes: Concepts and Approaches
This paper examines two methods used to elicit the participation of rural people ("stakeholders") in the monitoring and evaluation of development programs: the Stakeholder based evaluation (SBE), and the participatory assessment monitoring and evaluation (PAME). The difference is in the degree and stage of the involvement of stakeholders. The SBE pertains to a larger perspective where all possible stakeholders are identified and involved; the PAME involves mostly the direct and indirect beneficiaries of a program.
This article is the result of a review of the impact and effectiveness of Transparency and Accountability Initiatives (TAIs). These TAIs have taken democratisation, governance, aid and development circles by storm since the turn of the century – and many people are keen to better understand what they are achieving. The review was based on the extensive gathering and analysis of both literature and documentation, and provided conclusions and recommendations for improvements. This article, as well as giving a background to social accountability and TAIs, summarises both what, and how methodologically, we know about their effectiveness and impact. It also pinpoints the factors that determine impact and concludes with a look at gaps in current knowledge and practice and recommendations for addressing these.
This article draws on literature from both monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and organisational learning to explore synergies between these two fields in support of organisational performance. Two insights from the organisational learning literature are that organisations learn through ‘double-loop’ learning: reflecting on experience and using this to question critically underlying assumptions; and that power relations within an organisation will influence what and whose learning is valued and shared. This article identifies four incentives that can help link M&E with organisational learning: the incentive to learn why; the incentive to learn from below; the incentive to learn collaboratively; and the incentive to take risks. Two key elements are required to support these incentives: (1) establishing and promoting an ‘evaluative culture’ within an organisation; and (2) having accountability relationships where value is placed on learning ‘why’, as well as on learning from mistakes, which requires trust.