A basic introduction to the techniques that could be used in participatory monitoring and evaluation. Outlines the development and utility of participatory monitoring and evaluation as of the late 1980s, and how it has evolved for use in community forestry projects. The methods used (community selection and community problem analysis as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation) are discussed, including specific evaluation events and the methods for dissemination and communication of results. Finally, some of the tools used are given, with an overview of their main characteristics, uses and drawbacks. While these tools are not termed PRA in this report, they are the same as tools used at the participatory appraisal stage.
A comprehensive review of the use of RRA techniques in community forestry, aiming to include the role of the social scientist in community foresty development in a way that is acceptable to all concerned, rapid and directed. Methodological issues are discussed, reviewing ways in which social surveys can be tailored for use in community forestry initiatives. RRA is examined both in theory and in the practical details of the toolkit. There is comprehensive examination of the different tools available within the RRA framework, and these are discussed within the framework of forestry, agriculture and ecosystem analysis, using examples.