These two CD-ROMs present a review of three yearÆs action research that has been undertaken in ActionAidÆs country programmes in Malawi and Sierra Leone. The aim of the research was to test the idea that poor communities are left outside the loop of negotiations about their own futures, because of barriers presented by language, literacy and access to those in power. The objective of the research has been to facilitate resource-poor communities to analyse and represent their own needs and priorities. Video was used by communities (in Mwakhundi, Malawi, and Freetown and Kambia, Sierra Leone) to form Community Alliances (CAs) around key issues with others like themselves. The CAs took their tapes to negotiate with government and donors. The action research tested a cyclical methodology focussed at representation through video. Each CD presents the research experiences of one of the case study countries. They include the video tapes that the CAs used to represent their needs to government and the responses they received.
Participation: sharing our resources: resource CD-ROM on participatory approaches, methods and tools
This resource CD features a field tools database of 135 participatory approaches, methods and field tools developed or applied by FAO and other organisations. It also contains a selection of 215 FAO documents in English, French and/or Spanish, which have been extracted from their Participation WebsiteÆs annotated library database and sorted according to a set of different category lists. The publications are available as full-text documents either in PDF, HTML or Microsoft Word format. The CD works in a web format and includes participatory tools and literature on micro (grassroots/community), meso (district/province), and macro (national/international) levels.
This 27 minute video documentary gives an overview of one of ActionAidÆs inception projects in Nigeria. It captures the essence of ActionAidÆs initial experiences in Nigeria of the processes, challenges, achievements, critical learnings and ways forward for using participatory approaches to behaviour change for HIV and AIDS prevention and impact mitigation. It is a video on how to empower civil society to respond to HIV and AIDS issues through participatory methods using the æStepping StonesÆ approach introduced by ActionAid.
This training manual is aimed at development workers with an interest in integrating theatre techniques into their working practices. It emerged through participatory research and training courses held with civil society organisations in Northeast Brazil and Peru. Three case studies of youth groups are presented to explore the ways theatre is being used in development and how these created and adapted new techniques. There follows some handy advice about how to plan a workshop and what the role of a facilitator should be, as well as a series of exercises divided into four sections: Beginnings, Conflict Resolution, Issue-based work and Evaluation. The manual is accompanied by a video made by young Brazilians, in which professionals talk about the role of theatre in their work, and techniques with diverse participant groups are demonstrated to give the viewer a sense of how the techniques work in practice.
This video emphasises the importance of behaviour and attitudes in development processes which are genuinely participatory and empowering. Following an introduction to PRA and its many applications (00-07), the remainder of the video focuses on the nature of relationships between outsiders and the people whom the PRA is intended to empower (08). The importance of behaviour and attitudes are illustrated by showing insensitive examples of unequal seating arrangements in public meetings (12), exclusion of women by seating arrangements, lack of communication by eye contact (13), dominating facilitators and intimidating dress style (14). These are contrasted with sensitive PRA which carries a conscious commitment to reversing power relations and soliciting different opinions, especially from the marginalised (15). Examples show women playing a leading role in public discussion (17), childrenÆs involvement, literate outsiders learning from non-literate people (19). The video also stresses the importance of institutionalising participatory cultures in external organisations in order that they can create participatory relationships with local partners (20-23). Personal change is the basis for institutional change.
Filmed in Bhutanes refugee camps in Nepal, China and Indonesia, this video will be of interest to field researchers, and in particular anthropologists. The anthropological method of participant observation is contrasted with more interactive participatory approaches. Included in the video are entering a community and joining in village activities, adapting the research plan to fit in with villagers activities, working with interpreters and dealing with expectations and responsibilities.
Forms part of a resource kit (see record no. 3377) and comprises 3 films entitled: 1) Participation and the World Bank's work: learning to get better at it. (28.50 mins) Interviews with staff and footage of participatory projects. 2) The poverty experts: a participatory poverty assessment in Tanzania. (44.08 mins) 3) Groundwork: participatory research for girl's education. (35.50 mins) See also record no. 2402 for manual to accompany original separate Groundwork video.
This video provides a good introduction to the potential benefits of PRA in implementing projects which benefit those normally excluded by conventional approaches. It contains interesting interviews with villagers who had previously participated in a PRA process. It also uses dramatised scenes to emphasise aspects of PRA, mostly concerning behaviour and attitudes. Which scenes have been scripted is sometimes confusing. Key points made are that marginalised people are usually not reached by conventional development approaches (03, 05, 30). The attitudes and behaviour of development workers and academics contributes to this (13, 37). PRA facilitates outsiders learning from villagers (08, 18) and overcomes conventional biases (34, 38). This is shown through the experience of Paraikulan villagers who worked with an NGO, SPEECH, to reclaim barren land. The outputs of PRA methods shown include mapping (19), wealth ranking (25), seasonality analysis (26), matrix ranking of problems (28), oral history (29), and Venn diagrams (32). Women were included in village development activities, through literacy classes and increased access to agricultural inputs (34). Villagers reflect on the subsequent activities to reclaim barren land and its impact on their lives (42), both in terms of production and increased confidence (44). A resident of another villager reports that the experience of Paraikulan set an example for other villagers (46).
This film was made alongside a PRA training workshop in Kyrghyzstan, which was attended by NGO workers from other Central Asian countries. It emphasises that behaviour and attitudes are key to PRA (02). Exercises to highlight this include role playing as a dominator and saboteur (03). Visualisation and æhanding over the stickÆ are ways to minimise dominance. Embracing error is another key tenet (06). The bulk of the video shows various methods being used by villagers and being presented back to the training workshop. These include semi-structured interviews (07), mapping (08), transects (10), matrices (11) historical matrices (12), timelines, seasonality charts and daily schedules (14), Venn diagrams (16), pie charts (18), network and flow charts (20), and card-sorting (22). The video ends with workshop participantsÆ reflections on the experience, the potential of PRA in Central Asia (24-30).
This video draws on the experience of an Australian funded participatory rural development project in the Philippines, to examine the challenges, risks and benefits of adopting a participatory approach. It takes the form of interviews with project staff, including foreign project consultants, provincial and local project staff, community development workers and agricultural extension workers. A range of issues is discussed, include potential factors causing conflict or distrust, the need for and obstacles to empowering farmers, the need for and resistance to a very slow learning process, transparency and agendas of various stakeholders, and the need to recognise and share constraints and strengths. These issues are discussed from the perspective of bilateral agency staff, NGOs, local government and community partners.
This video explores numerous issues surrounding participatory poverty assessments (PPAs), using the example of a PPA in Tanzania. A key issue is the identification of the poor, about which appropriate information is needed to inform government policy. In contrast to traditional surveys of income-poverty, the PPA provides a way to understand poverty from the perspective of the poor and to enable this perspective to influence policy. The importance of the involvement of policy makers in the PPA is stressed at several points in the video. This involvement contributed to chantes in attitudes to the poor within government and a recognition of the need for a corresponding change in government development tactics. The findings of the PPA were presented at policy workshops and contributed to changes in thinking about the nature and characteristics of poverty in Tanzania, as well as more specific policy reforms. The PPA primarily used PRA methods and visual materials developed by local artists in the PPA. The methods shown include, mapping, discussion of well-being, wealth ranking with villagers and district officials, 'story with a gap' and seasonality analysis. Among the highlighted findings of the PPA are that: indicators of poverty are location specific; intangible indicators of deprivation are important; strong gender differences exist in the prioritisation of problems; the poor adapt to seasonality through complex coping strategies. The PPA also revealed that participatory methods could be used to construct time series price data for rural Tanzania, which had not previously existed. The links between the PPA's findings regarding the causes of poverty and the implications for policy are highlighted, including access to land, agricultural policy, lack of production inputs, environmental degradation and access to credit and savings.