This four-part video aims to merge recent developments in PRA with existing conceptual frameworks on gender to provide a practical and thorough approach to gender analysis in natural resource management. It is intended as a training tool to enable fieldworkers to understand and incorporate gender issues in their work. The first section gives a summary of the analytical framework subsequently illustrated by three case studies. It is structured as a series of short themed segments (2-10 mins) which allow trainers to select what suits their specific training objectives and to stimulate discussion on related topics. The trainers' guide provides extensive suggestions for the use of each segment (34 mins). The following sections present three case studies from different cultural and environmental contexts. They demonstrate several PRA methods in detail and can be used in a training context as fieldwork examples, or for more in-depth exercises. The case studies are accompanied by hand-outs in the trainer's guide. The first case study looks at the use of coastal mangroves and other natural resources by women and men in two neighbourhoods near Karachi, Pakistan. The methods demonstrated include natural and social resource mapping, venn diagrams, a matrix of income sources, a pie diagram of fuel use, and a matrix of fuelwood types (28 mins). The second study of natural resource use and management issues in two villages in Burkina Faso shows seasonal calendars, transects, a matrix of land-use types, natural and social resource mapping, and a flow diagram (28 mins). The third case study explores biodiversity in forests and agriculture, historical change, and land use and management issues in Brazil. It demonstrates the use of seasonal calendars, transects, flow diagrams on deforestation and the impact of medicinal plants on local work, and a matrix of maize varieties (28 mins).
This dvd concerns environmental protection in Tanzania. It argues for greater roles for local people as experts and researchers in collaboration with outside professionals. In a Tanzanian setting, exclusion of local people from planning processes has disregarded traditional environmental protection practices (04). Current environmental problems highlight the need for professionals and local people to work together (06) and to revive traditional practices (07). Teaching young people is important to this (09). Village mapping leads to a discussion of changes over time and their impact on the environment (11). Five villages participated in a workshop to share experiences and learn from eachother (14). Problems were discussed and solutions proposed (19).
Fish from Malawi's lakes provide approximately 70% of the country's animal protein, although as the population has increased per capita consumption has declined. Smallholder aquaculture is expanding rapidly in the southern part of the country and has the potential to alleviate some of these shortfalls in fish supply by providing a cheap protein source (01). The film looks at a collaborative research programme developed by the Fisheries Department, the International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) funded by GTZ, and the University of Malawi. The programme aims to develop aquaculture technology which is appropriate to the needs of rural farmers (02). Constant evaluation and feedback from farmers to researchers means that the research can be refined according to farmer's needs (03). While there had been a rapid expansion in fish farming in Malawi, catches were variable and often poor. The problems were due to a lack of suitable fish species and feeds and poor water fertility (06), as well as farmers' inability to invest and the lack of integration of fish farming into the traditional farming system (07). An on-farm survey of resources and farming systems allowed researchers to prioritise research needs and develop aquaculture models relevant to the local agricultural situation (07). Methods of increasing overall productivity were investigated, including assessing the use of grass as an input (08), compost technologies for improving water fertility (10), and integrating agriculture and aquaculture systems (12). Methods of harvesting fish using locally available materials were also investigated (14). Open days at the aquaculture centre provide opportunities for farmers and researchers to interact. Farmers also participate in on-farm discussion and testing of technologies (19). The constant evaluation and feedback from farmers to researchers means that research agendas can be refined to meet farmers needs (21).
Pictorial Modelling: A Farmer Participatory Method for Modelling Bio-Resource Flows in Farming Systems
Shot on a small-holder farm in Malawi, this short video presents the process of pictorial modelling. This is a method for researchers or extensionists and farmers to visualise farming systems, by diagramming input-output flows. The example given here is of resource flows between aquaculture and other farming activities, but the method can be applied to other integrated farming systems. The DVD can be used in training workshops, as it divides the process into 3 stages, with pauses in between to allow for discussion. In phase 1 (01) farmers are encouraged to draw a fish pond using locally available resources. In phase 2 (03) they elaborate on inputs into the fish pond, and in phase 3 (05) they draw the outputs. The values of the method (07) include eliciting indigenous knowledge, encouraging a joint learning process between farmers and researchers, building farmersÆ confidence, and allowing farmers to discuss new ideas introduced by extensionists within the context of the farming system.