In 2006 oil was discovered in Uganda. With the country’s economy highly dependent on fuel imports, national oil production could make a long-term contribution to poverty alleviation. But for sustainable development to occur, participatory governance must ensure that people are involved in the decision-making processes affecting their lives. This paper, therefore, first analyses the adequacy of the existing legal framework on access to information and participation. Its findings show that although law and policy in Uganda indicate certain efforts to open up environmental decision-making processes to public influence, this is not the case in the oil production sector. On the basis of interviews and focus group studies it further examines the main practical barriers to better public participation. The author finds that in practice, public participation is subject to several financial, technical and political constraints. The culture of secrecy within government bodies, weak civil society structures as well as the politics of patronage remain substantive challenges for the fair and equitable management of natural resources in Uganda.
This book is a collection of writings about gender in Africa. The collection aims to serve both as a general introduction to the field and to highlight some of the main themes in the literature. The collection brings together early feminist scholarship with new and unpublished work, spanning the continent and representing the diversity of scholarship on gender in sub-Saharan Africa. The book is grouped into five key areas: contested representations: ægenderÆ in Africa; reconfiguring identities: femininities and masculinities; livelihoods and lifeways; transforming traditions: gender, religion and culture; and gender and governance.
The Gamba Protected Areas Complex (GPAC) in Gabon is an Integrated Conservation and Development Project designed to conserve ecosystems in the Guinea-Congo Basin and promote sustainable natural resource development. This article presents a socioeconomic survey undertaken by members of the local community using PRA techniques. The objectives of this survey were to determine the boundaries of terroirs villageois (buffer zones within which sustainable use of natural resources would be permitted), gather qualitative and quantitative information on the life of rural communities living in this area and develop the rapport needed for participatory management. The article outlines some of the PRA tools used aswell as emphasising the need to allow time to build rapport and trust within communities. It highlights the importance of using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in the Gamaba Complex through two examples, firstly, geographic positioning and delimiting of terroirs villageois and secondly, measuring damage caused by elephants to food crops.
Rinderpest is a severe viral disease of cattle and wildlife. It was introduced to Africa in the 19th century through colonial imported Asian cattle. It had catastrophic consequences killing as much as 90% of cattle in the decade proceeding its introduction. This paper traces the evolution of ideas and reviews some of the key lessons learnt from the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme which was established to coordinate and promote rinderpest eradication worldwide. The strategy focuses on vaccination and epidemiological surveillance. It has progressed from top-down institutional design to grass-roots empowerment where dialogue has mobilised communities and professionals to meet local and international goals.|It concludes that community-based animal health approaches have made a considerable contribution to the global eradication of rinderpest, combining appropriate technology, community participation, and international support to give programmes a broad-based appeal. The process has resulted in a significant exchange of ideas and an increased understanding of the need for alternative methods to meet a common goal.
Review of nine DFID participatory technology development (PTD) projects. Three thematic areas are considered: farmer participation, participation by other stakeholders and participation within a multidisciplinary team.
Based on findings from participatory studies, beneficiary assessments and on quantitative survey data, this paper examines farmers' perceptions of the constraints being faced by them in agricultural production, including the quality of agricultural services. Coping strategies adopted by farmers as a consequence of the agricultural policy changes in Zambia in the 1990's are also outlined.
Field observations have led many people to believe that beneficiary participation in decision making can contribute greatly to the success of development projects. When people influence or control the decisions that affect them, they have a greater stake in the outcome and will work harder to ensure success. But the evidence supporting this reasoning is qualitative so that many practictioners remain skeptical. Three questions need to be addressed: to what degree does participation contribute to project effectiveness? which beneficiary and agency characteristics foster the process? and, if participation does benefit project outcomes, how can it be encouraged through policy and project design? To answer these questions, researchers studied evaluations of 121 completed rural water supply projects in forty-nine developing countries around the world. The results show that beneficiary participation contributes significantly to project effectiveness, even after statistically controlling for the effects of 17 other factors. The basic conclusion of this study is that rural water projects must be fundamentally redesigned in order to reach the one billion rural poor who lack a sustainable water supply. Redesign must encompass a shift from supply-driven planning to demand-responsive, participatory approaches to ensure beneficiary participation, control, and ownership.