This short paper reports on the use of browse ranking in southern Zimbabwe. Two types of ranking were conducted. First, a simple scoring of a list of all available trees in the area was carried out. The results showed that the livestock owners' rankings tallied closely with quality assessments based on chemical analysis. Next, a more focused matrix ranking explored a few key species against a range of criteria. In terms of overall preference, early shooting was the most important criterion, followed by the importance of dry leaves as fodder. The paper concludes that ranking exercises can provide high quality information quickly and effectively, and can therefore be useful planning tools for helping to design fodder improvement programmes with herd owners.
This is a set of locally adaptable resources for communities working with orphans and vulnerable children in Africa. They are based on the experience of the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, its partners and other organisations. The briefing notes for working with children are organised into an overview and five sections: Education; Health and nutrition; Psychosocial support; Social inclusion; and Economic strengthening. Each briefing note provides issues and principles for guiding strategy, while drawing on best practice from programme experience. Each can be used alongside a Participatory Adaptation Guide, which will help organisations and community members, including children, to adapt these principles and strategies to their own local situation. These briefing notes have been developed through a highly participatory process, guided by an international advisory board (in collaboration with participants from Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Mali, Mozambique, Angola etc.). These briefing notes are divided into four sections: Introduction, with an overview that explains why programmes need to strengthen the skills and resources of families and communities to cope with the impacts of HIV/AIDS; Issues, with an outline of the impact of HIV/AIDS on children; Principles, with guidelines for programmes aimed at strengthening the coping capacity of vulnerable children, families and communities; and Strategies, with possible ways of taking action to strengthen support for orphans and vulnerable children. The full text document can be found on http://www.aidsalliance.org/building_blocks.htm or http://www.eldis.org/ and is available in English, French and Portuguese children, Africa, HIV, AIDS, training manual, orphans, health, sexual health, child care, coping strategies
A draft copy of a manual which seeks to address some of the factors causing low attendance, performance and participation of girls at school, by providing a means by which those involved in education can analyse interactions in the classroom, examine how instruction is differentiated by gender and identify gender-bounded attitudes and perceptions that influence learning , opportunities and achievement.
The first part of the manual describes techniques which can be used by teachers and inspectors to observe what takes place in the classroom as a basis for discussion and the second part concerns how Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) activities can build on this.
Pwani is a resettlement community located in a difficult environment adjacent to Lake Nakuru National Park in Kenya. This case study describes how a PRA-derived village level plan of action has helped to mobilise the community to solve its own problems of water access and related forestry and vegetation problems. The report outlines the process and methods used in the PRA, and discusses some of the lessons learned.
Documents a process of community development through PRA, discusses the advantages of the use of PRA, particularly through local community members. The use of a number of techniques are documented, including spatial (maps and transects) and temporal (time and trend lines, seasonal calendars) data as well as numerous ranking excercises. A community action plan was produced, and the methods by which the community began to implement this are given. Attempts to demonstrate that PRA by communities can initiate long term development providing lasting strength and cohesion. A number of illustrations are included.
This is a follow-up report on the work done by ActionAid to develop Community Based Food Security Monitoring Systems (CBMS) to assist in the timely predictions of impending food shortages. It is envisaged that CBMS's will not only prevent famine but also help build up livelihoods and strengthen long term development processes. This report looks at attempts in Malawi and Kenya to understand more about ways to use the community in the management of their own relief. Field staff were asked to speak to the community and come up with a list of alternative indicators that were particularly meaningful to them. An attempt was made to see if the the unique and detailed ways communities have of understanding and expressing situations of food insecurity could also have predictive value.
This book reviews contemporary campaigns for community participation and empowerment with examples from all over the world. It critically assesses developments in the 'mixed economy of welfare' in terms of their relevance for self-help and community participation. It also considers the concept of empowerment and its relation to public policy and development within social movements.
The methodology recommended by this document builds on rapid rural appraisal techniques. The author develops a framework for more effective analysis and design of community forestry activities. First, the framework analyses tenure issues within three broad tenure types: the holding, the commons, and the forest reserve. Second it examines, from the point of view of the household, the opportunities for tree planting and use under each of these three tenure systems. While it is recognised that there are obvious limits to the use of the rapid appraisal methodology, it should be possible to significantly reduce related design problems in projects through the procedures suggested in the publication. The author's knowledge of a forestry project in the Arusha region of Tanzania provides examples.
Rinderpest is a severe viral disease of cattle and wildlife. It was introduced to Africa in the 19th century through colonial imported Asian cattle. It had catastrophic consequences killing as much as 90% of cattle in the decade proceeding its introduction. This paper traces the evolution of ideas and reviews some of the key lessons learnt from the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme which was established to coordinate and promote rinderpest eradication worldwide. The strategy focuses on vaccination and epidemiological surveillance. It has progressed from top-down institutional design to grass-roots empowerment where dialogue has mobilised communities and professionals to meet local and international goals.|It concludes that community-based animal health approaches have made a considerable contribution to the global eradication of rinderpest, combining appropriate technology, community participation, and international support to give programmes a broad-based appeal. The process has resulted in a significant exchange of ideas and an increased understanding of the need for alternative methods to meet a common goal.
The Ugandan national parks service is setting a strategy of multiple use within its parks, with community participation in the management of forest areas. The aim is to allow harvesting of non- timber forest products in a sustainable manner. 7 'pilot' communities have been identified, and PRA is to used in these areas to undertake JFM. Community committees have been set up, although they consist mostly of local leaders. A number of historical and visual techniques attempted in order to promote small and large group discussions, and collaborative forest management agreements. Both the community and the national parks board appear to be happy with the progress so far.
This manual "is designed to provide ideas on how to learn from and with rural women (and men!)". Its aim is to convince the readers of the need to consider gender and environmental issues in the planning, implementation and M&E of any development activity. The introduction reviews the general issues. Section 2 is a set of guide-lines on communication, learning and analysis of techniques for use in investigating local natural resources issues with rural women. These techniques are largely drawn from the RRA repertoire but their specific application to gender and the environment makes this volume more than 'just another RRA manual'. There are useful boxed examples of the use of various techniques and a list of books and organisations which offer more information on the subject. Section 3 comprises a number of illustrative case studies by groups of rural women. Section 4 describes some simple techniques which have been applied in conservation projects and case studies of how groups of rural women have used these ideas.
As part of the Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Programme, staff at Kakamega forest have been involving local people in forest management. This included individual households as well as local administration. Both sustainable forest use and opportunities for income generation outside the forest were examined. Self help groups were formed, and a number of different vegetable growing methods developed. The evaluation team used PRA to discuss the benefits and problems of the programme - spontaneous development of other self-help groups, increased interest and increased awareness and concern over environmental isses, although some groups had greater problems, and groups that did well had worries for the future over marketing. It is unclear whether this had decreased the impact on the forest area.