This video records the process of an exploratory PRA which was conducted by World Neighbours in Kenya. Previous projects in the area had adopted a top-down approach with no participation by local people. Using a PRA approach outsiders such as extensionists or government officers acted as facilitators to initiate the process which the villagers then continued. Through this process people were able to develop an understanding of their situation and themselves, and to realise the potential they had to deal with their problems (02). Initially the facilitators discussed the need for the PRA with the villagers (06). Meetings were arranged so that women were able to participate throughout (07). Information unfolded visually through small group activities and the information which had been gathered was presented to the whole group for discussion and correction (14). The discussion led on to identifying needs and problems as well as suggestions of how to deal with them (14). Key issues were then prioritised through a ranking process (17). Women's and men's daily work and rest patterns were recorded on daily activity charts. Households and village amenities were drawn on a social map (21), and trees and other natural resources used by the village were indicated on a resource map (21.50). Pairwise scoring was then used to determine locational needs (22). In the last stage of the PRA an action plan was designed on the basis of the needs which had been identified (22).
This reports on ActionAid's project aimed at strengthening emergency preparedness and responses in famine vulnerable areas in a number of African countries. It examines the setting up of Community Based Food Security Monitoring Systems (CBMS) that help field staff make timely predictions about impending food shortages. One of the principles of a CBMS is that it is 'people-centred', and the community should be involved with data collection, interpretation and response. The aim is to build up a picture of the way peoples' livelihoods operate and what constraints and stresses they face. To assess the food security situation, PRA techniques are used including semi-structured interviews with key informants and group discussions with farmers and village leaders. PRA is also used to collect data on early warning indicators. The paper comments however that it is best not to take a full community-managed approach in circumstances where a number of participatory prerequisites are not in place.
Over the last year exercises termed participatory poverty assessments have been carried out as part of the process of preparing World Bank Country Poverty Assessments in a number of countries. In Ghana, Zambia and Kenya such exercises have been carried out in rural and urban areas using methods based on the RRA/PRA 'family'. The article questions some of the assumptions underlying the methods, drawing on experiences in Ghana and Zambia. It argues that assumptions of community, mutual knowledge and homogeneity in livelihood patterns derive from the rural-based traditions of the RRA/PRA approach and are not relevant to an urban context.
This paper focuses on methods which can be used to highlight food security issues and health problems in a community. A 'method' highlighted is the incorporation of local definitions of the issue - in this instance nutrition into the creation of hypotheses about the nature of the problem.
This book is based on the experiences of the success and failure of national and international networks and attempts to answer some key questions related to networking for use in the development process: It attempts to answer the following questions:
À What is a network?
À How do networks function?
À Why are some networks very successful but others disappointing?
It provides a synthesis of the issues, as well as offering practical advice. The first part of the book discusses the benefits and problems of networking and sets out guidelines for successful networking with examples from a range of development networks. The second part illustrates these points more fully with a detailed case study of animal traction networks in Africa.
This was essentially a two-week evaluation of the current programme of resettlement in Tete, Mozambique started in September 1994. The aims were to assess the needs of older people, particularly the most vulnerable, in two communities of Changara district, Tete province; to use the exercise as a planning tool to determine priority areas and appropriate strategies for developing the Resettlement and Community Development Programme with older people in the district, fostering the empowerment of participants; finally, to make recommendations for future resettlement programmes by Helpage International. A participatory methodology was employed in order to analyse change in community and family structures, as well as the position of older people in the community and how this affects the support and care the community can provide.
It draws on the experience of the author with regard to socio-economic surveys carried out in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. It considers problems in sampling, farmers' responses, the interview situation, survey staff, and various problems with regard to recording accuracy and data processing. The paper concludes by noting 20 key aspects that should be taken into account when designing surveys. These include: (1) careful selection and training of staff; (2) the importance of learning the farming systems in advance; (3) where possible to choose farmers for whom the key parameters are known from other sources; (4) utilize at least one full time supervisor resident in the survey area with independent transport; and (5) allow two thirds of the total period for activities other than the field survey, ie. data processing.
A report of a one day workshop held in Maputo for practitioners, partners and beneficiaries of the Mozambique Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA). The report examines three themes: process, utility and institutionalisation.
The PPA process and methodological issues of qualitative data collection, institutional partnerships and PPA implementation are discussed under process. Utility of the PPA is looked at in terms of the value added of participatory and qualitative approaches and the issue of institutionalisation includes options for increasing the application and impact of the PPA as a functional tool for poverty alleviation activities.