This paper describes the process of a workshop, held in Hanoi, Vietnam, which used a participatory curriculum development (PCD) methodology to create an agroforestry curriculum development guide. The paper introduces the underlying concepts of PCD and reflects on some lessons learned about the process. It also discusses some possible reasons behind the success of the workshop in terms of the participatory process applied, the content, and the final product.|By the end of the workshop, participants had, together, written a draft guide. After review and editing, this guide aims to support the development of agroforestry education and training programmes in the South-East Asia region, and enhance the teaching and learning process of agroforestry.
This article details the rationale for the Water Equity in the Lifescape and Landscape Study (WELLS), which was carried out in the Philippines and Vietnam. Household water security is defined in terms of quantity, quality and access. The Household Water Security Mapping Tool (HWSMT) is explained in detail. The HWSMT is a rapid, participatory and relatively precise assessment tool of household level water security that is visual in nature. It is comparable among water user groups, allowing the identification of any inequities, and provides an opportunity to create a better picture of water scarcity that better reflects local realities. The strengths and limitations of the tool are briefly discussed. The article concludes by looking at the lessons learned and policy recommendations arising from the study.
The Participatory Approaches Learning Study (PALS) examined the potential for increasing stakeholder participation in DFID country programmes and at DFID's experience of delivering aid through participatory approaches. Its recommendations include proposals on staff development, on ways to make the Project Cycle Management System more flexible and accountable, and on making participation a stronger characteristic of DFID itself. The two-year research project involved separate studies of four of DFID's geographical departments - DFID-India, DFID-Bangladesh, South East Asia Division, and the Western and North Africa Department, which included India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ghana, Egypt and Nigeria. This report is a synthesis of the main findings and lessons from each of the geographical studies and includes Operational lessons from PALS, Participation and Project Cycle Management, Training Needs and Participation and Institutionalising Participation.
Rather than challenging the universal validity of PRA, this discussion paper focuses on the practical task of "doing PRAs" in a new and alien context. The authors advocate the acknowledgement and acceptance of local cultural trends, power relations and structures of authority when undertaking participatory research. This will allow to work with, rather than around these factors. Hence, the proposed "Vietnamisation" of PRA so as to allow local voices to shape the values and techniques of PRA itself. But, just how Vietnamised can PRA become until it comes into conflict with international liberal PRA values? This broad discussion originated in a workshop organised in Hanoi on Community Research Methods in February and March 1996. The issues covered by the paper include: introducing PRA and PRA values in Vietnamese communities, gender, local leadership and dominance; and international donors and PRA. Methodological issues covered are: sampling, recording of research information, interviews, focus group discussions and mapping.
The Use Of Participatory Action Research In The Development Of A Community Managed Health Program In Baragay Pinagsanhan
The paper is a descriptive and explorative study on the experience of the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction in the conduct of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and its contributions in the development of a community managed health programme in Barangay Pinagsanhan in Cavite, Philippines. The experience showed that the initial conduct of PAR helped in the codification of the people's concept of health. It also familiarised them with a more systematic learning process for the planning and implementation of a more culturally-sensitive community health programme. Recommendations to maximise contributions of the PAR exercise in enhancing community cooperation and the villagers' critical thinking capability are suggested. The institutionalisation of PAR as a management tool for the planning and implementation of community programmes is also discussed.
People, realities, negotiations and other love songs: some thoughts on participatory monitoring and evaluation, development cooperation and funding organisations
Brief critical evaluation and discussion of PRA and especially participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) drawing from experience in the Philippines. Covers ethical, social and institutional issues offering a valid critique of the institutionalisation of PRA and PME.
Training in the use of RRA for baseline data collection and target group identification was conducted in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, as part of a joint venture between the Governments of Indonesia and Canada. Nine trainees (from government agencies and NGOs) took part in the six week training, half of which was spent in a remote village area. This report describes the "set routine" of fieldwork, where a mixture of RRA (participatory mapping) and baseline data collection techniques were used. The results of the target group identification strategy are discussed in terms of successes and problem areas. The trainees' responses to using RRA techniques and "the potential for institutionalizing RRA/PRA" into official planning procedures in Indonesia conclude the report.
Outreach was brought in to facilitate a "participatory self evaluation" of a HIDA/MYRADA agroforestry programme: the process of the workshop is detailed here. A SWOT analysis was carried out, looking at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the programme in small groups. On the second day, the key questions identified were discussed: levels of participation in the programme and peoples' priorities; institutional issues; technology; training. From these, it was felt that the programme did have a different approach to other programmes, due to support, equity and training. An approach for future programme management was worked out, discussing problems, goals, conflicts and government roles. Several examples of exercises such as mapping are given, from the different groups within the agroforestry programme. The conclusion reached was that the programme has started to "make a difference", and that changes in attitudes and in practice have occurred. The evaluation also highlighted areas for further development.
A Manual on the Estate/Barangay-level Productivity Systems Assessment and Planning (PSAP) Methodology
This clear manual covers a large number of research techniques and methods commonly used in PRA. They are grouped under three categories of information gathered: spatial, temporal and social/institutional information. For each tool/technique, the following steps are explained in detail: what information can be gathered with the technique, steps in carrying out the technique and the importance of the technique. Illustrations are given of examples for each tool and an analysis is made of the sample. Once the data are gathered, the manual covers aspects of verifying them, identifying problems and opportunities and using the data for planning. The examples given come from the application of the tools in the village of Igdagmay on Antique. While the manual does not focus on soil and water conservation, it is written for rural development work in general. This is a good reference book for those wishing to use any of the techniques covered.
The paper summarises an RRA conducted over nine months in the Parbhani district of Maharashtra. There were four aims: 1) to evaluate techniques of RRA as a basis for community assessment, nutrition planning and programmes; 2) generate insights into factors that influence the nutritional status of rural inhabitants; 3) recommend interventions to improve nutrition; 4) identify problems for further research. In depth interviews and group discussions were held with 200 families. Results generated an insight into agricultural practices, cash cropping, marketing, storage practices and infant feeding practices.
An exploratory study in Parbhani, a rural community of the western dryland region of India, assessed community nutrition problems using RRA to assess the broad causes of malnutrition. The total study period was nine months. The survey team used public transport, often conducting just two interviews a day. Through open-ended surveys and focus group discussions, in-depth information was obtained on agricultural patterns, food habits, food storage and marketing practices, infant-feeding practices, and cultural beliefs and taboos. Secondary data was analysed. The study concludes by making recommendations for further research.
This project employed a variety of qualitatative and quantitative techniques in order to better understand customary land-use systems in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Researchers used cartographic maps as a tool to get villagers to mark their resource-use land boundaries. A global positioning system and a geographical information system were also employed and the results processed by computers. The researchers are thus able to produce a map of areas of overlap and overlay between village, nature reserve, forest concession and forest land-use maps. It is hoped that this information may help to bring a recognition of customary land and enable villagers and the Forest Department to reach a consensus about its management.