The paper discusses a project which aimed to acheive agricultural diversification by encouraging the production of cotton in the Gambia. An evaluation was carried out by the ODA's food strategy group in association with the Ministry of Agriculture. The object of the rapid appraisal was to identity constraints in its expansion, to examine the distribution of its benefits between and within households and to assess its potential as a cash crop alternative to groundnuts. The methodology of the appraisal is decribed, which involved investigating the organization of farm labour and technical aspects of cultivation.
A report on a 9 day RRA training exercise, which discusses the rationale behind the use of RRA, details four days of field experiences and detailed reflections on both the content of the course and the field training. Both positive aspects and concerns were expressed. The participants on the training course were split into three groups for field work, and the second section of the report illustrates their experiences in the form of case studies. A brief description and history of each village is followed up with detailed information about seasonality, cropping patterns, food processing, nutritional and livestock issues. There are numerous illustrations. As well as an analysis of farmers constraints there is a detailed discussion on the methods and approach used.
Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme, Nigeria - Project Identification using Rapid Rural Appraisal, October 1991: Part I (interim report 21) selection of communities and collaborative workshop/ Part II (interim report 22) Marit villag
The Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme [JPERDP] (Nigeria) aims at developing a viable approach to rural development in the tin-mining region of the Jos plateau. The approach was by 1991 already moulding itself around two twin thrusts, namely, action research and capacity building. Part I of the report contains the selection process used to identify and contact cooperating communities for part of the phase two of the JPERDP, and also goes on to document the action-oriented collaborative training workshop. Two communities were selected, Marit and Wereng, according to a set of selection criteria offsetting common biases in rural development. Part II and III are village reports from the villages of Marit and Wereng.
This is a selection of letters and memos from FAO offices sent in reply to an IDS request for information on the use of PRA in policy research. Most replies indicate little such application of PRA. the last letter, however, concerns the use of PRA in a fisheries programme in Guinea. 45 fisheries department staff were trained in PRA. This resulted in a series of reports, prepared by national staff without requiring any further outside assistance, being one of the reasons why the reports seem to have had an impact on policy decisions at the ministry level.
This case study provides an example of a participatory multi-institutional, extension approach to seed development and dissemination.
This network paper from the Rural Development Forestry Network presents two papers. The first paper ôDesigning participatory strategies for forest projects in West Africa: two case studies from Beninö, examines different approaches to achieving effective participation by local people, by contrasting two successful forestry projects in Benin. A GTZ-funded forest rehabilitation programme followed a strategy of 'working with people', creating joint activities and paid labour, while a large multilateral project, PGRN, took the approach of 'talking with people', fostering political involvement. The author argued that certain crucial factors - common interest between project staff and target groups, a clear project strategy and commitment to a long process of communication and institution building - distinguished projects in which participation was merely functional from those in which local people had a full political role in decision-making. The second paper, ôThe Monitoring Team Approach to Project Follow-up and Evaluation: Experiences from two SIDA-Funded Programmes in Central Americaö, looks at a new approach to evaluation of donor projects was described in this paper. Rather than the usual practice of one-off external evaluations, the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA) experimented with Monitoring Teams, who visited projects in Costa Rica and Nicaragua on a regular annual or biannual basis. Each visit was carried out in a standardised manner with emphasis on in-depth discussion with all stakeholders. The new approach proved well suited to the modern style of flexible, broad-based projects in which the donor has little direct involvement. Not only did the Monitoring Teams provide SIDA with an ongoing accurate picture of project performance, but the repeated visits established an iterative cycle of project improvement.
This paper describes the use of RRA to explore environmental and economic change over a period of twenty years as a result of dam building, within the Hadejia-Jama'are floodplain. The study was conducted in 27 sample villages and comprised of semi-structured interviews and field visits to examine villagers perceptions of changes in patterns of flooding and river flows, with timing determined using key events in Nigerian history. Ranking and scoring of activities before and after the construction of the dam were used to examine economic changes. The methods used allowed spatial patterns of economic and environmental change to be mapped and revealed significant differences between villages, for an area which had previously been considered homogenous. The potential of RRA to be applied in such a manner demonstrates its potential for planning on a regional scale.
This article outlines how a participatory approach was used in five villages to investigate systems of access to fishing rights and their evolution as a basis for future fisheries development initiatives. Particular attention was paid to conflicts and disputes which had emerged over such rights and conflict resolution process charts were constructed by village elders to show how disputes had been resolved in the past.
Describes how PRA was used with a self-help fund, comprising of fishers, fish smokers and fish traders, to identify and analyse problems. Those problems common to all groups were identified with the use of venn diagrams, one of which was preserving the catch and maintaining its quality throughout each stage of the trade. As an outcome of the exerciese a Fish Preservation and Marketing Cooperative comprising the fishers, fish smokers and bulk buyers was formed and with self-funded contributions purchased an outboard engine .
For the past three years the Centre for Cosmovision and Indigenous Knowledge (CECIK) has been working in Northern Ghana with an approach based on Empathic Learning and Action (ELA) framework. This framework has been developed and tested to support development projects that allow peoples' religious beliefs and practices to be an active part of the planning process. In this case study, the Boosi tribe from Bongo, Northern Ghana worked with a CECIK representative to design an experiment to keep the invasion of 'devil weed' at bay. This involved using an analogy between the farmers' experimental design and the footpath to the village, as well as consultation with ancestral spirits. This paper details the scenario, the process and experimentation, and the outcome.
This is a resource book designed primarily for development workers working within the field of the rural poor. It describes a range of first-hand experiences with participatory approaches in the context of projects funded by The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and governments in Asia and the Pacific. The book is divided into a number of sections. Part One examines poverty and participation and explains why the poor should be targeted and in what ways this is possible. Part Two describes in detail the actual participatory approaches. Part three concentrates on participation in the project planning and implementation stage. Part Four assesses the monitoring impact and Part Five examines issues in participation with regards to institutions, partnerships and governance.