This paper explores the potentials and limits of REFLECT, with particular reference to its piloting in Bundibugyo, Uganda. Issues examined include, post-literacy support and the language barriers experienced by newly-literates. The paper argues that since the present REFLECT programme in Bundibugyo leans more towards the methodology and ethics of PRA, it holds less opportunity for Freirean conscientization.
This manual is for development professionals and residents of local communities in the North and the South who address constraints to equitable, effective and sustainable development. The authors hope that the framework for socio-economic and gender analysis offered will contribute to capacity building and empowerment of communities. The manual is divided into five sections - an overview, outline of conceptual framework, elaboration of participatory strategies and tools, sketching of scenarios and a concluding section on measuring effectiveness. Each section is detailed and a step by step guidance is offered to conduct the analysis.
MASVAW Movement Mapping Report: Movement Mapping and Critical Freflection with Activists of the Men's Action to Stop Violence Against Women (MASVAW) Campaign, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, August 2014
Engaging men and boys in addressing gender-based violence has grown in attention over the past 20 years. However, the emerging field predominantly focuses on the issues as a problem of individuals, neglecting the role of the institutions and policies that shape norms of gender inequality and perpetuate violent power asymmetries between men and women in people’s everyday lives (Cornwall, Edström and Grieg 2011).
Men’s engagement in addressing GBV has therefore tended to be relatively depoliticised, focusing predominantly on individuals’ attitude and behaviour change, and less on accountability of the structures that uphold patriarchal power relations and male supremacy, such as macroeconomic policies and the governance cultures of many formal and informal institutions.
This movement mapping report thus introduces a collaborative research project between the Centre for Health and Social Justice (CHSJ), India, their local activist partners in the Men’s Action to Stop Violence Against Women (MASVAW) campaign and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) to explore the effectiveness of men’s collective action in addressing GBV. CHSJ is working across India on the issue of mobilising men to transform discriminatory norms into those based on equity, equality and gender justice to ensure the fundamental human rights of all people.
The research is premised on the notion that challenging patriarchy and working towards gender equality must include working with men and boys to understand their privileges as well as the co-option, coercion and subjugation that they also face within a patriarchal system. In turn, we aim to improve understanding and knowledge of the changing roles of men in addressing GBV and how and why collective action holds possibilities as an effective strategy to support this in the Indian context. This research is exploring the actors, strategies, challenges, collaborations and pathways for future engagement of the MASVAW campaign that works across the state of Uttar Pradesh.
This paper draws out lessons from gender mainstreaming work for those who seek to institutionalise participation. The author begins by discussing the shift from Women in Development (WID) to Gender and Development (GAD) and the conceptual frameworks that contributed to this process. The strategies used to mainstream gender, with achievements and challenges are then examined. This is followed by a discussion of the shifts from participation per se to governance, suggesting that the shift from æwomen in developmentÆ to ægender and developmentÆ is mirrored by a shift from æparticipationÆ to ægovernanceÆ, with a greater focus in both on a relational perspective, policy processes and institutions. The tensions between gender mainstreaming and participatory development are explored and ways of bridging the gaps between ægenderÆ and æparticipationÆ are suggested. The author argues that renewed alliances with emerging movements and more critical perspectives are required to prevent the cooption of visions and weakening of values which underpin efforts to mainstream both a gender perspective and participatory approaches to development and social change.
This paper describes how chapati diagramming was used with two groups at a community centre; the management committee and a Parents and Toddlers Group, to examine how each group perceived their degree of access to decision-making proesses. The author reflects on how group dynamics and unequal power relations determine what is represented. Moreover, since venn diagramming demands consensus highly individual opinions, by virtue of being represented on the diagram, can become identified as a collective representation of a particular group's 'reality' by people who did not observe the accompanying discussion process.
The widespread uptake of participatory approaches has created a need to assess more critically if the work is benefitting women and men equally. Community differences are simplified, power relationships poorly understood and conflicts avoided or ignored. The contributors to this book provide an overview of issues and lessons, theoretical reflections, practical experiences and examples of how organizations are attempting to integrate gender into the participatory process.
These notes are a resource for putting ActionAid's new Accountability, Learning and Planning System (ALPS) into practice. It is intended for use not only by ActionAid staff but also, where appropriate, by partner organisation staff. The notes assist in considering the implications and thus practical application of ALPS. An important feature is the inclusion of examples of processes to enable efficient utilisation of ALPS; by regularly updating this resource and constructing a corresponding website for interaction, staff will be invited to contribute by identifying what has and what has not worked well, in order to facilitate an efficient system of processes integral to ALPS.
Opening the Doors to the Hidden WASH Needs of Women from the Onset of the Perimenopause in Urban Ghana
Recent debates on ensuring equity and inclusion in sanitation and hygiene provision in the Global South have begun to explore the needs of excluded groups of individuals. Yet, the sanitation and hygiene needs of perimenopausal (PM) women, who are making the transition to menopause, are neglected.
This study explores this new field of research and aims to provide recommendations to meet the sanitation and hygiene needs of PM women. Opening the doors to these needs warrants the use of adaptive, participative, feminist methodologies, placing PM women at the centre of the study to enable them to share their experiences. This research uses a six-stage case study methodology: a literature review, a phenomenological review, research design, case study selection, data collection, and data analysis.
This research identified several sanitation and hygiene needs as crucial to PM women’s health. This research concludes that the hidden sanitation and hygiene needs of PM women require participatory techniques to reveal them. Relationships with certain people allow PM women to discuss and meet the sanitation and hygiene needs to a degree. PM symptoms vary in nature, between women and day to day. This research demonstrates that the sanitation and hygiene sector needs to become more attentive to bathing and laundry issues overall, learning from the needs of PM women.
Participatory civil society-led approaches to educational interventions for girl child labourers in India: the road ahead
This paper analyses the role of civil society in advocating for the adoption of the Bill on the Right to Education in India. The author argues that recent successes in civil society mobilisation could form a good basis to implementing the right to education with the active collaboration and participation of the Indian government. Thus she demonstrates how civil societyûgovernment collaborative approaches have been able to tackle child labour and contribute to increasing access to educational opportunities for girls. In doing so, the author recommends: that there be an increase in sensitisation, mentoring, awareness-building, and in developing the participatory governance capacities of rights-unaware communities, while mobilising the masses to achieve reforms through advocacy; that there be a requirement for state bureaucracy to train staff in reforming legal and regulatory frameworks, and implementation systems; that at the local level designing methods of participation that incorporate new bargaining tools e.g. Public Interest Litigation (PIL); and working with women in æpositions of powerÆ as potential agents and champions of change. Some of the observations that have been made in the interim period following the passing of the Right to Education Bill include: a call from representatives from civil society to government to set up a 'National Commission on Education' comprised of experts, which would ensure a participation through involving civil society actors as an integral component in any planning and delivery to ensure implementation of the Constitutional provision; and the formation of state-level networks of civil-society organisations several Indian states to lobby the state governments to implement the principles of the Bill on the ground.
Participatory programme learning for women's empowerment in micro-finance programmes : negotiating complexity, conflict and change.
Micro-finance programmes are currently promoted as strategies for both alleviating poverty and also empowering women. However, a number of recent academic studies have questioned the benefits of such programmes for women. Given the need to examine their gender impact, this paper proposes an alternative to the traditional costly quantitative and qualitative impact studies. A participatory approach is proposed which integrates empowerment concerns with ongoing programme learning, which in itself contributes to empowerment.
This paper raises issues around PRA as an empowering process. For the poor, product matters more than process and "it is the functional, material gain which is the entry point, not the empowerment". PRA can be seen as "Orwellian manipulation" from the point of view of "elaborate processes imposed to secure participation". In practice, those "least familiar with Western cultural processes will be the most excluded and manipulated" - usually the women of a community. Any approach or technique has "differing meanings in differing geographical, cultural and temporal contexts", so PRA should also be seen as "context limited and context enhanced".