With this pioneering book introducing participatory approaches in rural development, the author challenges preconceptions dominating rural development at the time. The central theme of the book is that rural poverty is often unseen or misperceived by outsiders, those who are not themselves rural and poor. The author contends that researchers, scientists, administrators and fieldworkers rarely appreciate the richness and validity of rural peopleÆs knowledge, or the hidden nature of rural poverty. He argues for a new professionalism, with fundamental reversals in outsidersÆ learning, values and behavior, and proposes more realistic action for tackling rural poverty. The book is divided into eight chapters focusing on rural poverty unperceived (i.e. as perceived by outsiders); two cultures of outsiders, negative academics vs. positive practitioners; how outsiders learn; power structures and knowledge; integrated rural poverty including deprivation, vulnerability and powerlessness; making priorities for action; reversals in professional values and bridging gaps between disciplines, professions and departments; and recommendations and discussion of practical actions.
This book describes a grassroots approach to empowering people for democratic social change. It explains participatory research using exemplarly case studies on community organizing, femist theory and ecological movements from a range of locations in North America. It challenges the relevance and validity of academic social science research.
Participatory action research is presented as a social research method and process and as a goal that social research should always strive to achieve. This paper describes the key features and strengths of participatory action research, and briefly analyses its role in promoting social change through organisational learning in three very different kinds of organisations. It is argued that participatory action research is always an emergent process that can often be intensified and that works effectively to link participation, social action and knowledge generation.
"Participation" has three uses and meanings: cosmetic labelling, to look good; co-opting practice to secure local action and resources; and empowering process, to enable people to take command and do things themselves. Its new popularity is part of changes in development rhetoric, thinking and practice. These have been shifting from a standardised, top-down paradigm of things towards a diversified, bottom-up paradigm of people. This implies a transfer of power from "uppers" - people, institutions and disciplines which have been dominant, to "lowers" - people, institutions and disciplines which have been subordinate. The many labels and schools of participatory approaches in research and development tend to hide underlying changes in philosophy and practice. Rapid rural appraisal leading to participatory rural appraisal (PRA) is one example of a shift from data collection to data sharing and empowerment. With PRA, poor people have shown far greater capabilities to appraise, analyse, plan and act than professionals have expected. Empowerment of the poor requires reversals and changes of role. Some of the new approaches and methods, especially of PRA, make reversals less difficult and improbable than they used to be. PRA faces many dangers. For it to be used on any scale in an empowering mode implies widespread changes in bureaucratic procedures and culture, including more participatory management. This Working Paper explores these ideas, looking at Participation, The Paradigm Shift from Things to People, Power Relations: Uppers and Lowers, Change and Spread, The Paradigm Shift in Practice and the Implications (of the paradigm).
This discussion paper aims to show that PRA is able to generate information that is quantifiable, objective and as reliable as any information generated from sample surveys. The paper is split into three main sections: Quantitive Data from PRA which outlines the varied types of data and information which can be generated by using PRA; Reliability of PRA Data which looks at the advantages of using participatory approaches over the older style sample surveys; Using PRA for Regional/State Planning which shows how these approaches can be scaled up to involve the community in regional planning processes. The paper concludes that information generated by PRA is both qualitative and quantitative, and unlike questionnaire surveys should not be extractive. It generates information that strengthens the capacity of marginalised communities to meet their needs, and as such is an integral part of a community-based development process.
Guide to participatory research that provides information regarding strategies, methods and resources used by practicing participatory researchers to mobilise communities around gathering and producing popular knowledge. The report begins with a presentation of case studies from around the USA of various participatory research projects.
Following this are do's, don'ts and maybe's regarding amongst other issues, power relations, building community and group alliances and diversity, getting information out, starting and sustaining groups and dealing with conflict and funding.
A compilation of four reports from the Institute for Development Research: "Ideology and Political Economy in Inquiry: Action Research and Participatory Research" by LD Brown and R Tandon; "People-Centered Development and Participatory Research" by LD Brown; "Participatory Research and Community Planning" by LD Brown; "Building Capacity Through Action Learning" by M Leach.
This article describes participatory action research carried out by Roofless Women's Action Research Mobilization (R-WARM), in investigating homelessness amongst women in Boston, Massachusetts. Researchers themselves had formerly experienced homelessness, and dialogue - rather than standard interviews - was used to discover the shared nature of problems and common grounds for action.
An account of the Participatory Action Research (PAR) process in Colombia which served to broaden community participation in the management of scant water resources for a growing community and pave the way for the prioritisation of problems in a participatory and democratic way. The article brings in the voices of the community.
The contents of this manual trace the roots, principles and practices of four well known participatory research approaches:
À Participatory Research (PR)
À Participatory Action Research (PAR)
À Action Research (AR)
À Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)
Each section includes a description of the approach and a case study designed to be used in training situations. The manual is user friendly, contains basic definitions, case studies, reading lists and is well illustrated. It provides discussion points and questions, as well as exercises related to conducting participatory research in the field.