This paper documents the proceedings of a workshop run by SDDP for trainees on the theme of PRA and participatory planning techniques. The workshop was designed to give an introduction to the theory and practice of these themes which would enable trainees to then practice the methods in the field. The introduction to the workshop raised some important issues for discussion on the questions of what participatory development actually entails in practice. It also introduced the concept of a '' ladder of participation'' that discusses the potential for different degrees of participation to exist. The trainees were then divided into four sets of teams and introduced to a wide range of PRA tools that they were expected to try out in the field before initiating a process of participatory analysis among community members. The workshop provided a brief guide as to how to utilise the different PRA tools, with a prescriptive list of do's and dont's and an example of each was given. The concept of community action plans were then introduced in the workshop as a means of continuing the process of PRA. The document concludes with discussions arising from the process and the implications it had for the participants and the communities. In the adjoining annexes ( A-E) among other issues there is a short discussion of the relation between PRA and rural development and some comments that were made by participants during an evaluation that followed.
This report describes the relationship between 'people-centered agricultural development', sustainability of agricultural development and the empowerment of the resource-poor people. The report also describes the evolution of the principles of people-centered agricultural development, their spread, effectiveness, and modifications in their application. (Remarks - incomplete document, maybe some pages missing at the end)
This chapter describes the efforts of and problems encountered by an NGO, Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP), India, in its attempts to integrate the concerns of men and women, while supporting local village institutions in managing their natural resources.
''NKASIRI'': Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning Techniques: Workshop proceedings, Maralal, Kenya, 1996
This paper documents a workshop run by SDDP for trainees on PRA and participatory planning. The introduction to the workshop raised issues like what participatory development actually entails in practice, and introduced the '' ladder of participation'' i.e. different degrees of participation. The trainees were divided into four teams and introduced to a range of PRA tools, with a list of do's and dontÆs. Community action plans were introduced. The document concludes with discussions arising from the process and their implications for workshop participants and communities. The annexes include a discussion of the relation between PRA and rural development and workshop participantsÆ evaluation comments.
'Say it with pictures': an account of a self assessment process in a dairy sector support project in Tanzania
This article offers an account of a self-assessment process in a dairy sector in Tanzania. It discusses the work of the Southern Highlands Dairy Development Project in re-orienting their dairy support sector approach towards one that works with households involved in dairy work in a more participatory manner.
Report of participatory rural appraisals carried out in two farming communities to help farmers resolve the problem of gullying.
The Living Earth Foundation is an international NGO that works with people to resolve environmental issues of concern to them. This article describes their people-centred approach of raising awareness in a way that does not rely on one way communication media, and focuses on the principle that people will learn from those they know and trust. The Foundation's work, using this approach with the Rufiji Environmental Management Project in Tanzania, is described, including the role of volunteer listeners and the process of establishing the programme. It goes on to look at the next steps that need to be taken and at lessons learned, and concludes that this programme represents a point where environmental education and stakeholder dialogue converge.
This brochure describes the participatory methodology used by Helvetas, the Swiss Association for International Cooperation, which intends to help improve the quality of education and training. It introduces and describes the basic principles and approaches of curriculum development and the learning process, and presents a case study of the Social Forestry Support Programme in Vietnam. Other Helvetas experiences are also presented, from Sri Lanka, Nepal, Lesotho, Kyrgyzstan, and Bhutan. With regard to the financial costs of the approach, it is seen as too expensive, though the approach is a long term investment. A number of benefits are evident:| As it is an innovative process it raises the prestige of institutions and individuals involved;| As prestige rises and experience grows, attitudes change in terms of greater willingness to listen, communicate and learn;| It promotes the development of transferable skills, peer learning, building of relationships, and of mutual trust and support.|Constraints to the programme are related to time and resources, bringing stakeholders together and trying to establish a common agenda among them, different groups lead to different levels of involvement. Finally, factors which facilitate the approach are:| Innovation should be key to the process;| The principle of participation means the development of partnerships and networks, in which experiences and knowledge can be shared;| Awareness of the fact that it is a time-consuming and continuous process;| Understanding of what motivates different stakeholders.
CAMPFIRE is a Zimbabwe project which seeks to place the proprietorship of natural resources with the poepl living most closely with them. The game discussed in this article is based upon the board game "Monopoly" where the participants each have a sum of money and their objective is to develop the wildlife potential and manage visitors. The game allows participants to practice the mechanics of book-keeping, analyse their sources of income and practice developing budgets.
This paper discusses activities of Mobilisation Against Desertification (MAD), an NGO in Kenya. MAD began their activities with one farmer who introduced two others, and gradually interest spread through the village. A PRA was conducted to find ways MAD could reach the whole village and to help villagers develop their own resource management plan. This paper outlines the PRA activities and environmental problems identified, and the role of a committee in following up with soil and water conservation activities.
In order to obtain detailed information about project participants's daily tasks, particularly in a gender context, 139 calenders were constructed for one specific day. The timeline focused on all the activities undertaken during that day, including agricultural work. Men did more agricultural work than women, although women worked harder overall. Of the 103 agricultural workers surveyed, the men spent more time with livestock, both were involved in nursery work, and men carried out slightly more work in the fields. The other projects studied were water and santitation, women's income generating projects and education. The gender difference in perception of agricultural tasks is noted, which relates closely to time spent talking, resting and in 'reproductive' chores.