Latin America is one of the world's fastest developing regions, yet also a hub area for crime and violence, where the links between social exclusion, inequality, fear and insecurity are clearly visible. This book explores the meaning of violence and insecurity in nine towns and cities in Colombia and Guatemala to create a framework of how and why daily violence takes place at the community level. It uses participatory urban appraisal methods to ask people about their own perceptions of violence as mediated by family, gender, ethnicity, and age. It develops a typology which distinguishes between the political, social, and economic violence that afflicts communities, and which assesses the costs and consequences of violence in terms of community cohesion and social capital. The featured towns and cities in Colombia are: Embudo, 14 de Febrero and Jerico in Bogotß, and Portico, el Arca, Amanecer, Rosario, Cachicamo and Colombia Chiquita; and in Guatemala: Concepcion, Nuevo Horizonte and La Merced in Guatemala City, and San Jorge, Sacuma, Limoncito, Gucumatz, El Carmen and Villa Real. Based on the experiences in these sites, the book examines the following aspects of urban violence: the role of participatory research methodologies in policy planning; the complexity of daily violence; community perceptions of underlying structural factors; the family as a violent institution; linkage to substance abuse; organised violence at the community level; social institutions and social capital; and community perceptions on strategies of dealing with violence.
Local government using participatory methods to facilitate stakeholder dialogue and conflict resolution
This article outlines a project that took place in Newcastle, in the UK in 2000. Instigated by Community Services in Newcastle City Council, it brought Local Authority officials, University staff, students and local residents together to try and solve the problems created by areas of high student concentration. These problems included increased noise, parked cars and a general perception of anti-social behaviour which led to resident complaints. The paper describes this process, including the staff training that was needed, the participatory methods used, the move from analysis to action and the results and lessons of the project.
The paper presents guidelines for undertaking urban appraisals on violence that evolved from a World Bank funded policy focused research on community perceptions of violence in Guatemala and Colombia. By reviewing relevant conceptual frameworks, discussing the need for conducting participatory urban appraisals for research on violence and assessing the tools for appraisal, the authors show the rationale for and importance of participatory urban appraisals.
This paper describes the use of participatory research on violence and discusses a range of participatory urban appraisal (PUA) tools that can be used for this purpose. This includes tools that can document the perceptions of poorer groups regarding the kinds of violence (economic, social or political), the extent, causes (and the links with poverty and exclusion) and consequences of violence, as well as the strategies for coping with or reducing it. In addition, it outlines a conceptual framework on violence, poverty/exclusion, inequality and social capital, drawing on examples from Guatemala and Colombia.
This report outlines a local community project conducted in the Hollingdean area of Brighton in the UK in 1999. The participatory appraisal exercises conducted sought to highlight the most important issues identified by the local residents of Hollingdean. The report outlines the methodologies used and then goes on to detail the various issues that were identified:
| Children and young people| Transport| Sheltered housing| Housing| Drugs| Community safety| Environmental issues| Other community issues| Food
The report is illustrated, with visual examples and photographic documentation of some of the methods used. In addition, it presents a number of possible solutions to some of the problems identified and an update on some of those already implemented.
Guide to participatory research that provides information regarding strategies, methods and resources used by practicing participatory researchers to mobilise communities around gathering and producing popular knowledge. The report begins with a presentation of case studies from around the USA of various participatory research projects.
Following this are do's, don'ts and maybe's regarding amongst other issues, power relations, building community and group alliances and diversity, getting information out, starting and sustaining groups and dealing with conflict and funding.
This book includes a wide ranging collection of papers which have been divided into sections dealing with communicating with children, gender empowerment, community interactive processes, approaches and insights, ethics and values of community participation and organizational capacity building.
This report presents the preliminary results of a participatory study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica carried out during September - October 1995 using a Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA) methodology. It describes findings from 5 poor urban communities in Jamaica on local perceptions of poverty and violence, and the causal relationships that produce and reproduce violence. The PUA began by eliciting local people's conceptions of poverty and vulnerability as an "entry-point" to discuss the sensitive theme of violence. The study clearly identified that violence in the selected communities erodes two key assets - labour and social capital - which are vital for reducing poverty, and ends with conclusions of specific relevance to the design of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund.
Training Workshop on Participatory Appraisal Methods for Participatory Assessment of Urban Poverty and Violence in Jamaica, 12-22 September, 1995
This document describes, in detail, the processes and the outcomes of a training workshop on participatory appraisal methods, the main objective of which was to develop a methodology for the study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica. The training workshop, which was participated in by over a dozen people including the Bank staff, was carried out in three phases: an introduction to the methodology in classroom sessions, pilot fieldwork and review, and the planning for the main fieldwork . The report provides an example of how PRA tools can be used successfully in studying more sensitive issues in the urban context as well. The fact that a good PRA in practice can help to bring about changes in 'outsiders' view regarding the importance and practicality of PRA tools is demonstrated. The report contains annexes with tables and diagrams.