Conflict-sensitive approaches to development, humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding: a resource pack
ALNAP's Gloabal Study on Participation and Consultation of Affected Populations in Humanitarian Action: review of French literature
This literature review is intended to complement the English and Spanish literature reviews carried out as part of the Global Study. Many of the issues and points of discussion raised in the English review were also noted or confirmed in the French literature. There are inevitable influences and overlaps between the various literatures, such that to make a clear distinction between the French, Spanish and English literature is, to a certain extent, artificial. However, it cannot be denied that there are some differences in approaches and emphasis, due to the predominance of certain schools of thought or institutional cultures. This paper emphasizes the differences by focusing on elements that were not yet necessarily covered by the other views, or that are addressed from a different angle.
The objectives of the review are to clarify the concepts and definitions of terms related to participation and consultation in the French literature on development and humanitarian aid; present and analyse key debates around the concept and practice of participation; review lessons learned, recommendations, and manuals that can be useful for the elaboration of the Global Study Practitioner's Handbook and overview book; and illustrate the issues raised through case studies that are relevant to humanitarian action.
Participatory microplanning: SEWA's approach: Jeevika - livelihood security project for earthquake -affected rural households in Gujarat
This paper follows SEWA's experiment with participatory microplanning to assist earthquake-affected communities in Gujarat, following the devastating earthquake of January 2001. SEWA's approach, adapted from a membership to a community focus, resulted in the Livelihood Security Project for Earthquake Affected Rural Households in Gujarat (Jeevika), which came about as a response to calls from the communities to rebuild themselves through securing sustainable livelihoods, rather than focussing on relief.
SEWA's goal is that the communities involved (some 400 villages) will take responsibility for planning, implementation and monitoring of the Project's programmes, and then managing and maintaining same upon completion. The challenges faced and successes achieved are documented; although the Project is heavily human-resourced, SEWA is committed to the notion of the communities' self-reliance and sustainability.
This book presents the role of communication in 8 case studies of natural resource management situations in developing countries. The case studies included are: Community based natural resource management in Namibia; Pastoralist communication in Kenya; Indigenous forest management in Cambodia; Recovering from conflict in Vietnam; Internet radio in Sri Lanka; Regional networking in Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Creating local organic markets in Turkey; Environmental education and Communication in El Salvador. It is designed as a learning tool and each case-study has specific learning objectives for the reader focussed around different aspects of communication in natural resource management. Questions are posed as every case-study develops serving as a base of discussion and inviting the reader to reflective thinking and drawing their own conclusions.
This toolkit draws on the lessons generated from learning projects and case studies supported under the Citizens and Governance programme of the Commonwealth Foundation. It offers practical guidance on how to promote the participation of citizens in governance. The contents of the toolkit include: the meaning of inclusive governance; ways for citizens to organise and engage in governance; strategies for multi-sectoral partnerships; key themes that emerge in governance, such as conflict, gender and power; suggestions for participatory methods in governance, including learning circles, popular theatre and role play; and methods for inclusive governance capacity building of citizens, intermediaries and government officials. Brief summaries of action-learning projects and case studies from the Citizens and Governance Programme from: India, the Caribbean, Vanuatu, Tanzania, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Zimbabwe, UK, New Zeeland, Africa, Malaysia, Canada and Belize; are presented. A toolkit CD-ROM designed to run on Windows 95/98/XP and MacOS9 is also incorporated. The CD-ROM contains the toolkit in an electronic format and has a resource bank of downloadable materials, such as relevant publications, materials used by the project partners and a word bank which provides explanations of, and proverbs illustrating terms common in the debate about civil society and governance which project partners themselves have furnished.
Whose security counts?: participatory research on armed violence and human insecurity in Southeast Asia
This book considers the real and perceived impacts of small arms misuse on the lives of ordinary people in 5 communities in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Aceh-Indonesia and the Philippines. It considers the role of small arms availability and misuse in a wide spectrum of contexts û from student fraternity violence to resource exploitation and dam-related development to state and insurgency-directed bloodshed. It collates the key findings of these localized studies and highlights, to the extent possible, the voice of the affected populations. The studies highlight the potential of participatory research methods for better understanding the implications of small arms misuse on personal security and its potential for monitoring and evaluating the interventions designed to improve human security and reform the military and police sectors.
This issue of Compas magazine focuses on the main controversies that individuals, communities and agencies involved in endogenous development are experiencing, and to show examples of methodologies to handle these controversies. Many of the articles presented show that the experiences of development agencies in consciously and systematically dealing with controversies are still few. The issue focuses on four controversial issues dealt with in separate sections: traditional leadership and governance, gender roles, agriculture and health care. Some of the main questions dealt with are how controversies between traditional leadership and formal government can be bridged; how to build on the strengths of both traditional and modern health care systems; how to understand culture-based gender concepts and support women in traditional cultures who face suppressive gender-related taboos; and how understanding between scientists and traditional farmers can be increased to help agriculture adapt to changing conditions. The issue includes articles on traditional ways of dealing with controversies; challenges between African, Asian and western philosophy; contexts, concepts and controversies between Andean and western cosmovisions; potentials and questions regarding indigenous institutions in Ghana; blending governance systems in Ghana; revitalising traditional leadership in Andhra Pradesh, India; conflict transformation between pastoralists and settled farmers in Sudan; dealing with land conflicts in Zimbabwe; livestock controversies in Europe; traditional leadership and gender in Kenya; rituals, taboos and gender in Sri Lanka; lessons from Buddhism on equality and diversity in Sri Lanka; ancient farming and modern science in Sri Lanka; changes and controversies in Uganda; controversies between farmers and scientists regarding grain storage n Nepal; and integrating different healing practices in Cameroon. The magazine also contains book reviews relating to the subjects discussed and descriptions of future issues. Sri Lanka, Kenya, Ghana, Cameroon, Europe, the Andes, Uganda, Nepal
Colombia's new Constitution of 1991 gave the status of citizen and participant to a people which had not historically enjoyed it. This implied the need for citizenship education and formation to enable people to take advantage of their new status. Many non-governmental organizations in Colombia immediately rose to the challenge. Some of these were newcomers to this field. Others, among them the Instituto Popular de Capacitaci¾n (IPC, Popular Training Institute), came to this task with a long history of working to deepen democracy in a range of ways. Christian Aid Colombia began to support IPC in the area of citizenship education in 1992. This case study represents a collaborative attempt, by Christian Aid with IPC's Democracy and Citizenship Team, to document the experience of IPC in promoting citizen participation from 1991 to the present. It aims to be, on the one hand, a piece of applied research that informs future practice in the field of citizen participation in local urban governance, and on the other, an advocacy resource for IPC and Christian Aid in Colombia and the UK, that illustrates the challenges faced in holding open spaces for democratic participation in a country in conflict. After an introduction the study sets the context and then moves on to look at the legal framework for citizen participation in local governance. Next, IPCÆs experiences in promoting citizen participation are documented, followed by a look at some key variables (gender, armed conflict and other challenges). The final section looks at learning from the experience.
This guidebook is part of a research toolkit produced by the International Save the Children Alliance to support the UN Study on Violence against Children (the other part is called So you want to involve children in research? A toolkit supporting children's meaningful and ethical participation in research relating to violence against children). This part of the toolkit is based on the experience of Save the Children developed to facilitate children's meaningful participation in the process leading up to, and including, the 2002 UN General Assembly Special Session for Children. It deals with involving childrean in formal consultation and policy processes and covers the following main areas: organizing consultaions with children; planning preparatory workshops with and for children; having children on delegations; the role of adults in creating an enabling environment for participation; ensuring that children are safe and protected; and ensuring follow-up. It also has an extensive guide to other resources.
This paper describes the process of facilitating negotiations to resolve a conflict between two communities in Nigeria, using participatory approaches. The conflict broke out as a team of researchers investigating local knowledge of HIV-AIDS arrived in the community. The author draws together lessons for successful mediation, for understanding local traditions and culture, and for the behaviour of mediators.
Local government using participatory methods to facilitate stakeholder dialogue and conflict resolution
This article outlines a project that took place in Newcastle, in the UK in 2000. Instigated by Community Services in Newcastle City Council, it brought Local Authority officials, University staff, students and local residents together to try and solve the problems created by areas of high student concentration. These problems included increased noise, parked cars and a general perception of anti-social behaviour which led to resident complaints. The paper describes this process, including the staff training that was needed, the participatory methods used, the move from analysis to action and the results and lessons of the project.
This article looks at government operated rice farming in Mbiabet in the state of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. Government operation of the Mbiabet Ikpe rice farm enabled expansion of the cultivable rice paddy, building of drainage systems, provision of silos and generators, improved infra-structure, and gave access to technical expertise. But it also generated massive fraud in allocating rice plots to farmers leading to conflicts and killings; inadequate maintenance of drainage systems; silos that remained unused and vandalised; and farmers refused to maintain their plots effectively as they could not keep it to the following year. In 1994 an Africa Development Bank (ADB) project funded a rice development survey in the area and a PRA (Participatory rural Appraisal) approach was applied with public meetings, workshops and action research involving the local community. The villages of Mbiabet were encouraged to set up Village Development Associations (VDAs) which were later coordinated in the Mbiabet Ikpe Community Development Association (MICDA). Within this network of organisations a framework was set up for participative identification of the main community problems their possible solutions. The MICDA then requested the handing over of the operability of the Mbiabet Ikpe rice farm and their proposal was accepted by the government. The authors conclude that the overtake of the rice farm has been successful and that the intensive nature of the facilitation where community members played active roles, coupled with long periods of engagement, which accorder people time to adjust to new challenges, contributed to the success of the programme.