The paper presents guidelines for undertaking urban appraisals on violence that evolved from a World Bank funded policy focused research on community perceptions of violence in Guatemala and Colombia. By reviewing relevant conceptual frameworks, discussing the need for conducting participatory urban appraisals for research on violence and assessing the tools for appraisal, the authors show the rationale for and importance of participatory urban appraisals.
This article reports on a five-day workshop, which took place in Ethiopia on the use of participatory approaches in emergencies. The first section describes factors that can trigger an emergency situation. Examining history, politics, livelihoods, culture and climate all help us to understand the complexities of an emergency. The notion of including all stakeholders, but in particular people at the community level in responding to an emergency situation is also briefly described. The participatory methods and tools used are then briefly outlined, highlighted by a number of case studies. Finally, steps forward are suggested, including the arrangement of further workshops. Details of the participants are listed.
The effects of Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and the subsequent 10 years' worth of rain which fell in five days brought environmental and agricultural devastation to Central America. World Neighbors (WN) had worked for many years on the promotion of soil and water conservation; the hurricane provided an opportunity for WN to study the effectiveness of this work in combating the disastrous effects of a potentially destructive climate and this newsletter gives details their work. They decided to carry out Participatory Action Research (PAR), a level of study which not only allowed the involvement of those most greatly affected by the climate - the local people - but other participants who expanded their own knowledge through the research methods and results. The system used was a pairing of plots with similar characteristics such as location and vegetation, but which provided a sharing of data through a direct comparison of agro-ecological and conventional cultivation. Other organizations were invited to participate in the study and form teams with the farmers, and all participants attended a workshop to learn methodologies. The methods used to analyse different variables such as slope, top soil thickness, texture, organic matter, insect and animal life, vegetation, erosion, landslides, and conservation practices are detailed along with the findings and lessons learned.
Participatory risk mapping for targeting research and assistance: with examples from East African pastoralists
This paper introduces a systematic but simple approach to classifying and ordering sources of risk faced by subject populations. By distinguishing between the incidence and severity of subjective risk perceptions, this method enhances understanding of the nature and variation of risks faced within a population. It demonstrates the usefulness of the method as applied to pastoralist communities in the arid and semi-arid lands of southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. This method reveals the considerable heterogeneity of risk exposure and severity that exists within this seemingly homogenous sector, particularly across strata defined by gender, wealth, and primary economic activity.
Indigenous peoples, national parks and participation: a case study of conflicts in Canaima National Park, Venezuela
This paper provides a resume of a D.Phil. research project. The overall aim of the project is to study and analyse the nature of conflicts in Canaima National Park, with emphasis on their history, structural causes and power relations. It seeks to find out which forms of participation are more likely to contribute to managing conflicts in national parks established in indigenous peopleÆs territories. The paper gives a brief background and rationale to the research project; presents the main points of argument and objectives; describes the project site and existing conflicts; and explains the research methodology which combines a community case study approach with traditional qualitative research methods. The paper discusses the spread of natural resource conflict management in Latin America; present trends and gaps in analysing conflicts in national parks; and the need to go beyond perception and stakeholder analysis in order to understand conflicts. The preliminary results of the study are presented regarding the nature of conflicts over implementation of park policy with focus on the use of fire by the Pemon people; tourism development; and the building of a power line to Brazil. The role of power in shaping different forms of participation is analysed focussing on the meaning of participation for the different factors. Based on the preliminary results, the paper proposes forms of participation that are likely to contribute to conflict management in Canaima National Park, focussing on the main conflicts (as mentioned above). An attachment gives further details of the field work process.
Case Study on advocacy, influence and political participation in the Philippines: constituency-building and electoral advocacy with grassroots women in the Philippines
This case study describes how the membership federation of the Democratic Socialist Women of the Philippines (DSWP) has used advocacy to organise and advance the interests of grassrootsÆ women within the political arena. The advocacy experiences in this story range from local level denouncements in cases of domestic violence, to legislative reform, and to electoral organisation establishing a womenÆs political party and field women candidates for the Party List Law in 1998. The study is primarily a description of how a national federation mobilises its membership to advocate at different levels. The experience from DSWP provides lessons about organising the power of numbers and responds to a number of questions: how grassroots members are incorporated into and ultimately drive the advocacy agenda; how decisions are made at the community level and in the organisation so that the process is empowering and owned by the members; and how women and other disadvantaged groups have created alternative forms of political strategy and organisation in order to engage in politics and at the same time, transform political culture. The study was an initiative of the Asia FoundationÆs Global Women in Politics Program (GWIP) supported by USAID (United States Agency for International Development).advocacy, influence, Philippines, domestic violence, women, gender, legislation, election
The Rural Community Network (RCN) in Northern Ireland embarked on a six-month feasibility study that examined the potential use and benefits of participatory research techniques to policy change and conflict resolution. This article discusses the findings of this research and critically assesses how participatory techniques can contribute to the aforementioned two areas. It also discusses consultation fatigue and the key contributing factors. The article concludes by describing a follow up action research programme, which will address some of the issues raised in the feasibility study.
Studio Ijambo was set up more than 2 years ago following large scale massacres that broke out between the two main ethnic groups in Burundi. During this period, there were 'hate radio' stations that focused on ethnic issues, furthering the already existing mistrust between the two ethnic groups. Studio Ijambo was created to try to show people that there is an alternative to violence and that compromise can be reached through dialogue. The programmes focus on issues of socio-political and economic interest, which directly involve people in their daily lives. Radio is used as a medium for increasing people's knowledge and therefore understanding of situations and of people with different interests and priorities. Through this greater understanding, negotiation and peaceful resolution becomes possible. This story focuses on the petrol price rise imposed by the government. How different people and sectors felt about this is recorded through street interviews and studio discussions and presented in radio programme format.
This document includes, details of the process used to review ActionAids programme in Somaliland and provides both a summary and details of the findings. The review was carried out by a group of both men and women composed of community based organisation members, village elders, staff from government institutions and other professionals. Mapping, interviews and small group discussions were used to elicit data on availability, relevance, accessibility, utilisation, coverage, quality, effort, efficiency and impact indicators.
This paper discusses the use and facilitation of PRA approaches in working with internally displaced peoples. It uses the specific case study of certain resettled communities in Colombia, highlights the resettlement experience, discusses methodological issues, and provides examples of participatory exercises in the field.
This paper describes the use of participatory research on violence and discusses a range of participatory urban appraisal (PUA) tools that can be used for this purpose. This includes tools that can document the perceptions of poorer groups regarding the kinds of violence (economic, social or political), the extent, causes (and the links with poverty and exclusion) and consequences of violence, as well as the strategies for coping with or reducing it. In addition, it outlines a conceptual framework on violence, poverty/exclusion, inequality and social capital, drawing on examples from Guatemala and Colombia.
This report outlines a local community project conducted in the Hollingdean area of Brighton in the UK in 1999. The participatory appraisal exercises conducted sought to highlight the most important issues identified by the local residents of Hollingdean. The report outlines the methodologies used and then goes on to detail the various issues that were identified:
| Children and young people| Transport| Sheltered housing| Housing| Drugs| Community safety| Environmental issues| Other community issues| Food
The report is illustrated, with visual examples and photographic documentation of some of the methods used. In addition, it presents a number of possible solutions to some of the problems identified and an update on some of those already implemented.
A look at how PRA can be used in a conflict situation in a national park to deal with sensitive information on illegal park exploitation. The authors discuss how the information generated through PRA had to be used carefully and sensitively given its potential to disrupt the ongoing dialogue with stakeholders.
The authors recount the breakthrough achieved through PAR in the conflict between two clans in Kenya over water resources. The article is built around one meeting and describes the dynamics of power at the meeting and the way in which the problem was resolved with the help of the PAR team who had been working in the affected villages. Details are provided on the PAR outcomes.
This anthology provides insights, dilemmas and approaches from the practice of development assistance, based on the experiences of USAID. The practical meanings of participation are explored in contexts ranging from economic reform and environmental planning to conflict resolution and humanitarian assistance. The book is split into three broad sections: À Participation as an End - considers ways in which development assistance can broaden peoples access to economic opportunity and to their society's decision making processes À Participation as a Means - describes some participatory approaches used in development programmes. They single out two key features: listening more broadly and forming genuine partnerships À In part three the focus is on issues and insights about "fixing the system" to facilitate the fuller engagement of development partners and greater flexibility, transparency, and responsiveness to the end user. The papers selected reflect some of the innovations, issues and candidly expressed concerns that have marked the agencies reforms. Finally a conference paper prepared by USAID staff in late 1998 outlines the Agency's organisational change process so far and distills seven lessons learned enroute.