This is an extensive report of a community appraisal, undertaken as part of a social forestry and upland development programme in Mindoro and Cebu, Philippines. The appraisal focused on two problem areas identified by an earlier rapid appraisal: (i) agricultural production and soil conservation, and (ii) social organisation and conflict. The appraisal team decided information was required on these two areas for the formulation of interventions. Fieldwork methods included community or group meetings, key informant interviews, semi-structured interviews, direct observation and measurement. The findings from the two study sites relating to the two problem areas defined above are presented in detail. On the basis of these findings, recommendations specific to the two study sites are made.