This article reports on the use of Forum Theatre at the University of Reading as part of a masters module on participatory approaches to extension and rural development.
This article describes the use Forum and Invisible Theatre to educate members of the public, living near to Campsfield detention centre in Oxford, about forced migration and claiming asylum, in the hopes that it would lead to action by the audience.
In 1994 Redd Barna Uganda started developing an approach to community-based planning using PRA (PRAP) that placed children and their issues at the centre of the planning process and that also aimed to recognise differences within communities. This report is based on discussions involving project staff, members of three partner organisations and villagers from seven communities. The discussion reflected on the PRAP process to examine which aspects were proving beneficial and for whom and those that were proving problematic with an aim of identifying areas for improvement.
Strategies for scaling up the work are also examined and prospects for encouraging more community based monitoring of the PRAP process as a strategy for strengthening impact.
The village immersion programme for the World Bank staff is atrining programme for executives entrusted with development transactions. It entails not mere spot visits, but staying in the village, not mere conversation with people, but comprehension of their culture and economy and not mere exposure to the rural scene, but immersion in their life and work. The booklet contains a report of immersion visits and reflections from Bank staff and facilitators.
This describes a Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) undertaken by the Government of Kenya and the World Bank during Febuary-April 1994. It had three primary objectives; to understand poverty from the perspective of the poor, to start a process of dialogue between policy makers, district level providers and the poor and to address the issue of the 'value added' of the PPA approach to understanding poverty. Methods used included mapping, wealth ranking, seasonal analysis, trend and price analysis, focus group discussions, key informant interviews; visual card methods, gender analysis, understanding health seeking behaviour; and incomplete sentences. Statistically the findings of the PPA and the Welfare Monitoring Survey based on an established poverty line were strikingly similar. The study also found a gap in the perception of poverty between the poor themselves and district officials. Separate chapters look at poverty in urban Nairobi and Mandera district.
This paper presents how a participatory approach was used to introduce to pupils aged 9-11 years at a school in the UK to a new subject - the environment. The session was started by finding out from the children what they already know about the subject, and what more they would like to find out about it. Using the children's understanding of the subject and the issue as a starting point, the children were introduced to what the World Summit and Agenda 21 were all about. The pupils were them divided into two groups and asked to demonstrate what their own local environment looks like, using mapping. Their maps were then explained and discussed. The paper notes that the pupils were able to show their local environmental issues.
A collection of papers from a workshop focussing on various participatory communication approaches, including video, radio and theatre.
The majority of papers are case studies drawn from both rural and urban development settings which describe situations where video or other communication media were used to give people a voice rather than a message. The case studies include both those situations where people participated in the production of a video and /or also those where the video was constructed in order to engage participation.
The article explores the idea of PRA as a new literacy and examines how far the visual language of PRA can be considered to be neutral and empowering for non-literate people. Using concepts from the New Literacy Studies, it looks at the process whereby new skills of mapping and diagramming are introduced to non-literate villagers. With specific examples it shows that many of the assumptions of PRA practitioners regarding peopleÆs understanding are supported by research into visual literacy and ethnomathematics. It argues that the extent to which PRA can be an empowering process depends on social factors, such as the way activities are facilitated and the familiarity of the setting. It concludes that, with the ænewÆ literacy users, PRA facilitators need to ensure that the visual activities of PRA are helping to extend people's visual literacy by building on the skills they already have, and making the most of the existing local visual literacy and numeracy systems. In particular, the making of diagrams needs to seen differently from the interpretation of diagrams, if PRA activities are to lead to action.