Paths for change : experiences in participation and democratisation in Lindi and Mtwara regions, Tanzania.
This document outlines the learning process that the Rural Integrated Project Support, RIPS Phase II has gone through in introducing a participatory approach to its work in rural development in two southern regions of Tanzania over the last five years, as seen by the stakeholders and facilitators in that process.
This article outlines a method for letting members of disabled associations give their opinions on how well they are being served by their association. The development of the method and its strengths, weaknesses and orientation towards donors are discussed.
Counter hegemonic globalisation occurs today in many forms and many settings and deals with a variety of issues from land and labour rights to sexual equality to biodiversity and the environment. This paper examines one urban experiment developed to resist the social exclusion that is an undeniable result of the globalisation process by redistributing city resources in favour of the more vulnerable social groups by means of participatory democracy. The experiment was the participatory budget established in 1989 in the city of Porto Alegre.
The first part of the paper describes basic information and the recent history of the city and its government, contextualising both within the Brazilian political system. The second part details a description of the main features of the institutions and processes of the participatory budget and of participation as well as the criteria and methodology for the distribution of resources. The third part examines the development of the participatory budget. The final part analyses the processes of the participatory budget with regards to its efficiency in redistribution, its accountability and quality of representation in a participatory democracy, the notion of dual powers and competing legitimacies and its relationship with the legislative body that formally approves budget.
From clientelism to cooperation: local government, participatory policy, and civic organizing in Porto Algre, Brazil
The paper starts with the observation that it is increasingly accepted that improving the quality of life in impoverished urban areas depends on the capacity of local residents to form social networks and civic organisations. While much of the literature calls for a retreat of the state to accomplish this, some recent studies have shown that state actors can actually promote empowerment of civic organisations. The article looks at an example of state-fostered civic organising: Porto Alegre's "participatory budget", which involves handing over municipal funding decisions on basic capital improvements to neighbourhood-based forums. The analysis looks closely at the Extremo Sul district in terms of mobilising neighbourhood residents, opening closed neighbourhood associations, building co-operative alliances, and transforming participants' perspectives. It is argued that in response to this policy innovation, innumerable neighbourhood organisations have formed, whilst at the same time clientelist forms of neighbourhood action have been discouraged and participation and inter-group collaboration promoted. It is concluded that the first step to state-sponsored civic organising is that the state must be genuinely open to participation and responsive, and that potential participants must become aware of that responsiveness. In Porto Alegre, this did not happen straight away, but there was a demonstration effect that helped mobilise groups, and the targeted issues were found to be meaningful to poor neighbourhood residents. Community organisers also acted as external agents helping unorganised neighbourhoods organise. Networks of reciprocity and trust were built and clientelism discouraged, as alliances built up from year to year and people changed the way they perceived their interests. Against the trend for promoting self-financing and cost recovery in infrastructure investments, top priority went to raising revenue through taxation and administrative streamlining. Further, government spending set off, rather than discouraged, a boom in civic action. It is argued that the policy prioritised a different kind of investment: building new relationships between government personnel and citizens. This new type of governing privileges accessibility, flexibility, and negotiation. It is argued that, overall, there has been a fundamental transformation of political life in Porto Alegre as neighbourhood residents have shifted from powerless cogs in clientelist machines to being active participants in public life.
Professionalism, participation and the public good : issues of arbitration in development management and the critique of the neo-populist approach
Conference paper argues that participation can leave decision making largely in the hands of middle class elements and not with the peasant mass. Participatory approaches also favour the internationalisation of authority, diluting standards of national accountability. The approaches are based on a hierarchy of values and attitudes and not on the promotion of a truly representative democracy.
This document provides guidelines to be used as a reference for the implementation process of a proposed Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Project in Uganda.
PRA is suggested as a key strategy to be used in the community planning and relevant techniques and training methods which can be used at each stage in the process are described. The guidelines also considrer the process of community mobilisation.
This paper explores the changing nature of NGO evaluation in Chile and in particular the changes that have taken place as a consequence of the transition to democratic rule.
The twenty second session of the Participation Forum focussed on presentations on the Empowerment Zone experience in Kentucky, USA and how citizen groups have been involved in monitoring its performance.
A resource kit consisting of a video and manuals, providing information and experience on participatory methods in order to support the adoption of participatory approaches in World Bank projects and studies. The kit includes modules on social assessment, stakeholder analysis, PRA, SARAR and beneficiary assessment, and participatory monitoring and evaluation.
IInfluencing government policy formation and monitoring together with influencing policy implementation has become a key goal for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in ensuring the success and sustainability of local programmes. This document brings together a collection of Institute for Development Research (IDR) reports which draws on a long-term program aiming to identify examples of successful development NGO participation in influencing policy. Three papers are included. The first is an analysis of alternative approaches by civil society organizations in influencing policy. The second paper compares a series of policy campaigns led by grassroots coalitions and groups situated in the Philippines. Five Filipino case studies are compared and the successes are described as well as some of the difficulties of policy work experienced by civil society. The final paper compares national and international campaigns to influence policies across a number of regions and countries. Lessons and implications for the transparency and the effectiveness of such campaigns are detailed.
Forms part of a resource kit (see record no. 3377) and comprises 3 films entitled: 1) Participation and the World Bank's work: learning to get better at it. (28.50 mins) Interviews with staff and footage of participatory projects. 2) The poverty experts: a participatory poverty assessment in Tanzania. (44.08 mins) 3) Groundwork: participatory research for girl's education. (35.50 mins) See also record no. 2402 for manual to accompany original separate Groundwork video.