This book presents issues and challenges facing those facilitating children's and young people's participation. The contributors come from a wide range of backgrounds including NGOs in development, children's agencies, academic insitutions and governments and provide case studies from the UK, Eastern Europe, asia, Africa, the Carribean and central and north America. Chapter 1 gives and overview to the main issues and concepts and chapters 2-7 each expand on a particular theme. The main issues discussed and analysed include: the ethical dilemmas facing professionals, the process and methods used in partlicipatory research and planning with children, the inter-relationship between culture and children's participation, considerations for instiutions and the key qualities of a participation programme.
This report documents the proceedings of the 3rd LIFE grantee NGOs workshop, held during two days in Faisalabad, Pakistan, 1998. LIFE (Local Initiative Facility for Urban Environment) was launched in Pakistan in 1993 by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). It supports local initiatives carried out by city dwellers in cooperation with municipal governments, NGOs and CBOs (community based organisations) to tackle environmental and social issues facing rapidly growing town and cities. The workshop was arranged with representatives from LIFE grantee NGOs (non-governmental organisations) to compare, analyse and discuss project experiences. Participants also visited one of the nearby LIFE projects. This report contains some brief notes on the proceedings and general discussions held in the workshop. It also gives more detailed account of some of the presentations made. This includes a keynote address concerning lessons learned in community based urban development from low income settlements, drawing from experiences of the Orangi pilot project; a presentation reflecting on the role of UNDP in changing urban patterns in Pakistan; and a session on exchange of key issues of mutual concern for the involved NGOs. Some of the main conclusions were that NGOs need to work together with the government at the policy level and at the field level; they need to seek out community activists, integrate them into the projects and give them training; larger projects should consider paying staff; young people should be encouraged to participate as they are intrinsically idealistic; NGOs need more transparency; information sharing should be improved in order to avoid duplication of work; and the involvement of commercial businesses should be considered. Annexes include statistics on urban growth in Pakistan; summaries of three LIFE projects (Anjuman Samaji Behbood, Lahore Sanitation Programme, and Faisalabad Area Upgrading Project); workshop schedule; and a list of participants.
REFLECT and institutional change : the experience of Inter-agency Committee for Literacy in the Eastern Zone (CIAZO) in El Salvador.
This article describes the very recent adoption of the REFLECT methodology by CIAZO. A certain amount of resistance to the introduction of REFLECT was experienced and some of the lessons learnt during the transition period are outlined.
A resource kit consisting of a video and manuals, providing information and experience on participatory methods in order to support the adoption of participatory approaches in World Bank projects and studies. The kit includes modules on social assessment, stakeholder analysis, PRA, SARAR and beneficiary assessment, and participatory monitoring and evaluation.
This is an exploration of the power dimensions of participatory development and research, and an attempt to look at the shifts in power within communities and institutions which are needed for participatory ideas to be effective. The aim of the book is to connect theory and practice. The book looks at the theoretical basis to participatory development work, drawing on related debates in anthropology, development studies and feminism. Demonstrating that these ideas are equally applicable in the North and in the South, case studies of participatory research techniques are drawn from sites as diverse as development theatre in Mali to video making with homeless people in the UK. Further chapters examine the relative power of the researcher or development agent vis-Ó-vis the community.
After reviewing participatory research and development within communities, the book extends the debate by questioning the shifts in power needed if institutions are to operate in a participatory manner. The book will be of interest to academics, students and practitioners in both the North and the South, and all those involved with courses in development studies, anthropology and sociology. In addition, the book will be a useful tool for agencies and practitioners involved in participatory-style development or research initiatives world-wide.
The Ad Hoc Working Group set up following the adoption of the DAC (Development Co-operation Directorate of OECD) Orientations on Participatory Development and Good Governance at the December 1993 DAC High Level Meeting (HLM) has completed its three-year mandate. Part I (i.e. the present part) of this report sets out the main results of this work as agreed by DAC Members in the framework of the Ad Hoc Working Group. This includes an agreed policy note, endorsed by the HLM of 1996, on in country co-ordination and a related guidance note on possible first steps for donors. It looks at the conclusions and action-oriented outcomes; the major points emerging from topic discussions; promoting in-country dialogue and coordination; and linkages to other development objectives and the DAC strategy for shaping the 21st century. It also contains three annexes with: Mandate and scope of work of the DAC Ad Hoc working group on PD/GG; Policy note on strengthening country level coordination for participatory development and good governance; and Proposed guidance for introducing in-country coordination on participatory development and good governance issues. Part II, Lessons from Experience in Selected Areas of Support for Participatory Development and Good Governance, contains summaries of the discussions on the main themes taken up over the last three years in formal meetings and in a series of informal seminars organised jointly by Members and the OECD Development Centre. Additionally, a separate publication Evaluation of Programs Promoting Participatory Development and Good Governance resulting from surveys of evaluation results and lessons learned in a number of relevant PD/GG ôsectorsö.
Final report of the ad hoc Working Group on Participatory Development and Good Governance: Part 2, Lessons from experience in selected areas of support for participatory development and good governance
The Ad Hoc Working Group set up following the adoption of the DAC (Development Co-operation Directorate of OECD) Orientations on Participatory Development and Good Governance at the December 1993 DAC High Level Meeting (HLM) has completed its three-year mandate. Part I of this report contains the final report while part II (i.e. the present part), Lessons from Experience in Selected Areas of Support for Participatory Development and Good Governance, contains summaries of the discussions on the main themes taken up over the last three years in formal meetings and in a series of informal seminars organised jointly by Members and the OECD Development Centre. It looks at the role of donors in the democratisation process; civil society and democratisation; human rights in development cooperation; legal systems; and democratic decentralisation. Additionally, a separate publication Evaluation of Programs Promoting Participatory Development and Good Governance resulting from surveys of evaluation results and lessons learned in a number of relevant PD/GG sectors.
This article provides a summary of the major challenges currently facing PRA, as well as the changes implied by some of these challenges. The challenges are considered at six different levels, namely the individual, community, organisational, project and programme, donor and policy levels. The challenges identified are drawn from the literature on PRA, as well as from a recent series of workshops held by the author with the staff of six NGOs that are promoting PRA in South Asia. The article concludes by attributing these challenges to five cross-cutting factors: differences in power, culture, knowledge, money and time.
This paper describes how the Indonesian government incorporated elements of PRA to launch a nation-wide programme of participatory village planning in 60,000 villages to be completed within the 1995-1996 budget year ending in March 1996. The article analyses the mistakes committed in attempting to scale up too fast in the face of too many constraints: too few sufficiently experienced trainers resulting in poor quality training, unrealistic budget and time constraints imposed by government, and the pre-existing top- down culture of development planning in Indonesia. The article shows in very clear terms that participatory approaches cannot be tagged on to existing national programmes, and that scaling-up will fail if it is rushed.