PIDOW (Participative Integrated Development of Watersheds): Gulbarga - Towards a PIDOW Model of Watershed Management
This paper discusses the development of a participative approach to watershed management in PIDOW, a collaborative programme involving the NGO MYRADA in India. It notes that an areas surveyed by RRA was ecologically degraded and weak in institutions and skills. This led to calls for assisting in design and building of local institutions to manage watershed resources. Effective participation in watershed management requires that the area considered is neither too large nor too small, and that management is decentralised to village groups. PIDOW also emphasises integration of forestry programmes, animal husbandry practices, and credit programmes with soil and water management at the watershed level. This paper explores and explains the rationale for the development of the PIDOW approach.
The report, written for an Arid Lands Workshop, very briefly discusses the main issues in SWC in sub-Saharan Africa. A list of "do's" for participatory soil and water conservation are then briefly discussed, which are mostly to do with the organisational side of SWC, rather than the technical. A short analysis is made of the character of Oxfam-funded SWC projects which concludes that the Oxfam projects are innovative and successful at getting the local population involved when compared to other such projects in the area. Four short case studies, from Burkina Faso, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia, end the report.
This paper focuses on the role of an NGO, MYRADA, in fostering participation in collaborative watershed management projects in India. It was decided that effective participation required the size of watershed management areas had to be small enough for people to be familiar with, and for families to be able to function together. the PIDOW project aimed to build their management capacities. This paper (i) presents an assessment of the degree of people's participation in various aspects of soil and water conservation, and forestry and horticulture programmes; (ii) explores what is meant by effective participation, and the roles of staff members in fostering participation; (iii) discusses structural features of people's institutions; and (iv) presents an analysis of groups in three PIDOW mini watersheds. This paper would be of interest to those involved in participatory watershed management projects, particularly those involving collaboration between government, NGO's and local people.
Resource Management, Population, and Local Institutions in Katheka: A Case Study of Effective Natural Resources Management in Machakos, Kenya
This report describes in detail the structure and operation of village institutions in Katheka Sublocation in Machakos, Kenya, with regard to natural resources management. It concludes that the village is an effective organisational unit to foster participation in project planning and implementation. villagers understand the relation between improved natural resource management and sustainable food production, and institutional structures are already in place in many countries. What is needed is organising and mobilising village institutions. This can be done through training of village leaders, for example by using 'exemplar' villages, carrying out PRAs and developing village resource management plans.
A five day PRA training course was held for NGOs working in tank rehabilitaton in Govenhalli, South India. The training programme is described in table form (Events/ Description) following the pattern of each day. The report focuses on organisation and how topics were presented, rather than detailed accounts of the fieldwork or of PRA methods. In the conclusion, positive and negative points of the training and major findings are summarised. The actual PRA exercises are included as an appendix.
This report is a review of the different participatory methodologies used in development throughout Africa. It includes overviews of the literature on participatory development, and participation in agriculture and natural resource management, forestry, health, credit, literacy, water, and urban programming. Numerous methodologies are outlined (e.g. animation rurale, auto-evaluation, GRAAP, Theatre for Development, RRA etc.). ACORD's experience with participatory methodologies in Burkina Faso, Mali, Uganda and Sudan are discussed in detail. There are annotated bibliographies on ACORD and key general publications relating to participatory methodologies, and lists of key institutions.
This book presents a participative action model to assist groups in developing the organisational, analytical and management skills required for community action to achieve sustainable use of land and water resources at the local level. Groups using this book are expected to develop participatory mechanisms for planning and implementing land and water management projects. It is aimed at developing self-learning skills by community leaders, extension officers and students in Australia. The contents are divided into short learning units in which outlines of theories, concepts and principles are followed by personal and group activities. The organisation of chapters follows the pattern of group development. It explains the philosophy of participative action in land care (Ch. 2); and discusses learning to work together, development of leadership skills and defining of roles and responsibilities (Chs. 3-5). The next eight chapters are on 'how to' aspects of group functioning: running a meeting, organising activities, planning, motivating oneself and others, effective communication, finding human and financial resources for projects. The last two chapters discuss how to keep momentum going and how to manage conflicts that accompany change.
This chapter from a guide to participatory land and water resource management, designed for community leaders and extension officers in Australia, discusses participatory planning for community action. Its main points are: the planning process consists of situational analysis, goal-setting, selection of solutions, development of implementation plans and monitoring and evaluation; seven steps are given to provide understanding of institutional planning undertaken by various agencies in the district; eight steps work through community planning by developing managerial skills; and eight techniques for improving participatory planning are described in detail. The chapter is written in a comprehensible and interactive style.
This paper examines a participatory procedure of self-assessment of irrigation system performance by farmers in the Philippines. The procedure was aimed at improving system performance through strengthening irrigators associations' (IA) managerial capacity in planning and decision making regarding operation and maintenance, communication and conflict resolution. The assessment was part of a longer intervention to organize farmers in small groups based on water and task distribution. The first phase involved self-assessment by the original groups of the process of organizing smaller groups and catalysing collective action. In one-day workshops, farmers used symbols and maps to assess the situation. The second phase used a self-assessment questionnaire filled out monthly by IA group leaders, to assess their own performance in a range of management tasks. The experiment showed that participatory self-assessment was quite successful in eliciting candid appraisals of the existing situation. Pictorial analysis was a learning experience in which farmers identified unexpected causes of problems. These problems lay within the farmers' ability to resolve them, so the assessment facilitated follow-up actions to address them, which are listed in a table.
This paper presents the experience of farmer participation in irrigation management in Sri Lanka, in an attempt to address key issues of resource mobilization and production system sustainability. Participation was initiated either with scheme rehabilitation or modernization. However, it was found that participation in irrigation management dates back 2500 years. The paper notes particular areas where participation should be emphasised in order to overcome management difficulties: operation and maintenance; rehabilitation and modernization; resolution of conflicts; input co-ordination and decision making.
This is a midterm participatory evaluation report of a watershed programme in Tiruchirappalli, South India. The project used PRA techniques (integrated with other methods) in the planning and impact evaluation stages. The report includes a detailed background to the programme and quantitative findings. No detail is given on how the PRA activities were carried out as the emphasis is on the information collected, including case-studies on the impact on women's status.
Summary Report for Actionaid on Progress of Community Participation in Government of Karnataka Project
This provides an update on the particpatory project in water and sanitation undertaken in Karnataka by Actionaid and partners. It details the early development of the programme, the participatory training project staff underwent, and the PRA work carried out. There is an emphasis on mapping, and large group meetings. These provide predominantly extractive information, but also legitimation for the programme. Eight PRA techniques are used in each district, culminating in a planning excercise. The participants and their varying responses are also recorded. This process is then contrasted with the process used by another Actionaid partner, who take a longer term, less forceful approach which incorporates women, for example, more fully, but has other significant drawbacks.
A detailed report of a 13 day workshop which spent several days in two field locations, with initial workshop sessions on environmental needs (including sustainable development and environmental impact assessments) and PRA. The theoretical training is illustrated, along with the handouts and flipcharts created. Several days were spent in the field, at two locations and the different experiences and methods used are discussed. In each village, specific issues were identified and potential opportunities identified. This included the digging of irrigation channels and the improvement of existing wells. The poor security situation was the most common explanation for the lack of villagers motivation to conduct any improvements. Evaluations of the field visits were carried out, as well as an examination of participants feelings about the theoretical sessions. Finally, it is recognised that Oxfam must follow up the work done during the field visits, as expectations of villagers had been raised. The potential for further training was also identified.