Many microfinance organisations are concerned about reaching the poorest sections of society, and are prepared to carry out screening procedures to identify these people. This article describes a pilot study to compare two such screening methods, the Visual Indicators of Poverty (VIP) test and the Participatory Wealth Ranking process (PWR), which have been used by the Small Enterprise Foundation in South Africa. A study is described which demonstrates the inaccuracy of VIP, a system based on static, externally judged criteria, when compared to PWR, which uses local knowledge of individual poverty. The article also focuses on some of the challenges faced in designing a cost-effective operational system based on participatory mapping and wealth ranking.
A memo from Ravi Kanbur on the project is attached
This information pack from the Exposure and Dialogue Programme (http://www.exposure-nsd.de) contains instruction materials for immersion and exposure and dialogue programmes (EDPs). In EDPs participants share the life of poor, in order to get better insight in their life. The main aim of the EDP is to transform the existing structures in favour of the poor and underprivileged by encouraging key individuals form diverse sectors to make use of their respective competence and their possibilities to act in favour of the poor. ôGuidelines for Reflection and Dialogue in Exposure and Dialogue Programmesö are concerned with the two phases that come after the exposure phase. They cover the time spent in reflection of the experiences of exposures and in deepening these experiences in dialogue. The guidelines go throw five steps of dealing with this process including individual reflection; telling key stories, communicating the main experiences of the exposure; thematic deepening of experiences to feed into policy development; north-south dialogue and networking; and reflecting on consequences and follow-up. ôGuidelines for Facilitators of Exposure and Dialogue Programmesö goes through all the phases of the EDP and looks specifically at the role of the facilitator. It gives thirteen key recommendations on how implement an EDP. The ôHand-out for shaping the Immersion Process: Exposure, Reflection and Dialogueö is directed at participants of an immersion programme, and gives practical tips for shaping the phases of a programme, and the individual steps that participants should take during the course of the programme. The ôHand-out for shaping the process of Immersion and for analysing the findings about vulnerability, life cycle risks and the risk management strategies of women workersö is directed specifically at participants of an EDP undertaken with the Self Employed WomenÆs Association, SEWA, in Gujarat, India. It contains tolls for shaping the phases of exposure and reflection, and for the analysis of life cycle risks and for writing life stories focussing on risk management strategies. The booklet öDevelopment has got a faceö gives an overview of EDP process, and presents experiences from EDPs conducted by the Association for the promotion of North-South Dialogue in Brazil, the Philippines, India and Bolivia. The pack also contains an example of a brief report from an EDP conducted with SEWA, India.
This report is a result of the first ever Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process (UPPAP) in which local people were consulted in 36 rural and urban sites in nine districts in Uganda. In this assessment "voices" and perspectives of the poor are brought to the fore to influence district and national planning, implementation and monitoring. The report covers perceptions of poverty and wellbeing and strategies for coping with being poor, as well as the degree to which the poor have access to, and benefit from, services and infrastructure. It goes on to look at issues of government and poverty, along with the role that security plays in development. Finally there are rcommendations and messages for policy makers. The report points to the fact that poverty is more than just income and expenditure or the lack of basic needs, it is also a feeling of powerlessness. Poverty in the eyes of the poor is location specific, multi-dimensional, cyclic and seasonal and requires a holistic approach to it's alleviation.
Analysis of Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) and household survey findings on poverty trends in Uganda
Analytical work on poverty in Uganda has been undertaken using both quantitative measures and participatory data collection. This is a report of a consultancy carried out to analyze Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) and household survey findings on poverty trends in Uganda, particularly to help clarify the picture on poverty trends, identify areas which require further work and any further findings from the analysis which require policy action. Key findings on the relationship between the PPA and household survey results on poverty trends conclude that the two sets of findings have different strengths and can be used to complement each other. Recommendations for future poverty monitoring are made, particularly in terms of using both data sets in complementary fashion to improve monitoring. Some issues for the future development and refinement of pro-poor policies are also raised.
This report from DFID presents the findings from a review of 23 Participatory Poverty Assessments covering 14 countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe. The objective of the review was: To document the main findings and key messages from PPA's and complementary studies; To provide guidance on how poverty/environment links can be made more explicit in future PPA's. Three distinct aspects were addressed in the review; The messages of the poor; What the PPA's leave out; Areas where environmental causes and effects are alluded to but not elaborated upon. The report firstly provides an introduction to PPAs and the Environment, and is then divided into three key sections. The first section is entitled Conceptualising Environment - Poverty Links, and looks particularly at dispelling myths. The next is Poverty and Environment: Key Messages from the Poor which includes issues such as characteristics of well-being and ill-being, environmental trends, livelihood management activities, institutional influences, stresses related to poverty and the environment and an overview of key messages from the poor. The last section is entitled Lessons for the Future, and includes identifying gaps and partial analysis, and recommendations. Annexes detail references and a Matrix of Issues. Key points from this report are given in a 2-pager - Environment policy key sheet no. 1, available on-line - see below
This publication by SEWA (Self employed Womens Association), Ahmedabad, India and North South Dialogue, Germany, that examines poverty in a micro context with the methodology of an Exposure and Dialogue Programme (EDP) that is essentially an attempt to understand poverty first hand and record some of the factors that lead to the overcoming of it. The EDPs are used to assist understanding of the situation of SEWA members, appreciation of the womenÆs strengths, and to find strategies to overcome problems. The first part of the publication My home, my workplace: A life of struggle for security presents the story of Kamlaben Koshti, a bidi worker and SEWA leader in Ahmedabad derived from an EPD on Empowerment through organising in 1999. It examines the process leading up to the EDP, with aims of gather experiences that couldbe used for the World Development Report on Poverty, for designing exposures for politicians, and testing the exposure methods for SEWAÆs own purposes. It goes on to give account for the life history of Kamlaben with lessons to be learnt; analyse the relevance of KamlabenÆs life for SEWAÆs policy, programmes and macro policy; and examining the process of meeting Kmlaben and comprehending her life. The second part of the report Struggling for security illustrates the lives of Savitaben Jivanbhai Valand, a midwife in Vihchiya, and Jetunben Razak Sheik, agarbatti roller in Bapunagar, derived from an EPD in 2001. It looks at the life histories of the two women and reflects on exposure, reflection and dialogue as means to understand vulnerability and to learn about risk management.
This book explores the qualities of relationship, behaviour and effectiveness that the poor of Bangladesh consider important in the institutions with which they interact during periods of crisis. It arose out of a perceived lack by the World Bank's Participatory Poverty Assessment (undertaken to contribute towards the World Development Report 2000/01) to look at the area of crisis and institutions. The main findings are: " Crisis is multi-dimensional, and related to exposure to mishaps, stresses and risks, as well as to dangers in the physical environment, in society and in the economy, and in administrative and legal systems. Events like floods, droughts, deaths, etc., which affect almost everyone in the community trigger community actions for coping with the situation; " The poor have developed a number of survival strategies to cope with crisis, which are linked with the way assets are pooled and managed to reduce vulnerability; " The poor interact with a range of formal and informal institutions during crisis. Local government, police and court systems are manipulated for political purposes by successive governments, making the poor most vulnerable since they lack political connections. Flaws in the health system have created the opportunity for corruption. Despite unanimous trust of NGOs by the poor, allegations of misuse of funds, gender discrimination, and nepotism have been made. The poor place much more of their trust in their local Community-Based Organisations for security and survival, and their inability to access state organisations". " A number of recommendations are made in the area of state institutions: pro-poor formal administration, anti-corruption, pro-poor health services, increasing women's security; in the area of pro poor policies: land reforms, safety nets; in strengthening NGO-state links; and the need for overall coherence in these initiatives".
This paper examines immersion as a method for of knowing the community, ôliving the realityö and sensitising people to the lives of the poor. It analyses the context, rationale, design and ethics and use of immersion programmes. It looks at the application of immersions to ActionAid India including case studies. The first case study describes the process of a rural and urban immersion organised by ActionAid for staff from DFID (Department for International Development, UK) and the British High Commission in Musahar Village, Uttar Pradesh. It includes details on planning, practical arrangements and reflections for future immersion visits. The second case study describes the use of immersion for sensitising ActionAid staff and head-quarters planning. It describes the background, objectives and design of this immersion programme. It looks specifically at immersion with marginalised families and as an integral part of structured capacity building. This is followed by one of the participantÆs personal account of the immersion experiences from the village Bala. A brief report on the experiences of a participant from the immersion programme I Musahar village.
A group of development analysts had a dialogue about labour market, trade and poverty issues in 2004. They preceded the dialogue with exposure to the realities of the lives of six women from the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in Gujarat, India. The struggles faced by these women provided the frame for the technical dialogue that followed. This is a compendium of personal and technical reflections of the analysts involved in the exercise. While the personal reflections focus on the experience of the participants, the technical reflections give an economic analysis of the situation of the women. The exercise was part of the Cornell-SEWA-WIEGO exposure and dialogue programme aimed at starting a dialogue between mainstream economists, SEWA activists, and WIEGO (Women) researchers around key assumptions of neo-classical economics and neo-liberal economic policies, which trouble ground level activists and researchers working on issues of employment and labour. This project is described in an appendix in this document. An epilogue examines the use of exposure methodology for dialogue and key issues.
This paper looks at the exposure method part of the Immersion Programme with the goal to expose participants to the lives of poor people. The paper is part of the compendium Reality and Analysis (that can be found on http://www.arts.cornell.edu/poverty/kanbur/EDPCompendium.pdf), and a result of collaboration between the Indian NGOs SEWA and WIEGO, and the Cornell University, USA. The paper gives an introduction to the exposure methodology for dialogue (EDP) describing the concept and looking at how it evolved in a German and Indian context and how the Cornell-SEWA-WIEGO EDP programme came about. It takes an in-depth look at the application of EDP based on the experiences of the Cornell-SEWA-WIEGO programme. The paper proposes a design of business and issue-related EDPs for sensitising and motivating decision and policy-makers for shaping pro-poor policy. The specific phases of this type of EDP are examined and discussed including comments and recommendations based on experience. Recommendations are made for shaping the organisational process; learning about the methodology; learning about a culture of dialogue; and learning about the combination of ôExposureö with ôDialogueö on issues. An appendix looks specifically at the case of the Cornell-SEWA-WIEGO EDP, which had a as its objective to start a dialogue between mainstream economists, SEWA activists, and WIEGO researchers around key assumptions of neo-classical economics which trouble ground-level activists and researchers working on issues of employment and labour, including labour market interventions; and trade and foreign direct investment.
The assessment of household wealth in health studies in developing countries: a comparison of participatory wealth ranking and survey techniques from rural South Africa
Health researchers often wish to study the impact of wealth on health outcomes. To do this they must collect data on social and economic factors. However, the collection of detailed data on income and expenditure is rare in health studies in developing countries. Instead, researchers generally adopt more rapid procedures based on survey methodology. Increasingly this has included the use of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to generate a number of separate indicators of welfare. An alternative approach is to utilise participatory wealth ranking to generate a measure of household wealth. The aim of this paper was to compare the results of Participatory Wealth Ranking (PWR) and an indicator-based survey methodology conducted within a health research programme (the IMAGE study) in rural South Africa. The data point to widespread and severe poverty among the study population, including indications of high unemployment, reliance on wage remittance and state grants, poor access to clothing, and fragile food and educational security. Household wealth indices were created from both techniques, using PCA to combine the survey data. Data from both techniques was available from 1467 households. There was a high level of internal of consistency in the participatory wealth ranking data However there was only moderate agreement between the ranking of householdsÆ relative wealth from the two techniques, although both techniques identified similar factors as of importance in determining wealth. The reasons for the discrepancy are unclear, but are likely to include methodological and conceptual factors inherent in both techniques. PWR may be a useful tool for the assessment of relative wealth in health studies in developing countries.
This publication has been produced to improve the chances of success of Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs) by showing policy makers how strategic communication can help them achieve their objectives and by giving technocrats and officials guidance on best practices and lessons learnt from a community of practice spread around the world. Strategic communications is the active seeking of the perspectives and contributions of citizens so that they can help to shape policy. It also means ensuring that mechanisms are in place for a two-way flow of information and ideas between the government and citizens to contribute to building support for the national development strategy. Some of the main issues confronting strategic communications include: lack of information about strategies; lack of trust and confidence about the process; so-called participatory exercises are still too often mere public information campaigns; and too often the communications processes come to an end once the PRSP is finalised. The report is structured into four main parts: strategic communication in PRSPs: an overview; country case studies (Ghana, Moldova, Tanzania) and lessons learnt; short case studies (Bolivia, Cambodia, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Rwanda); and Appendices of additional material.