This publication by SEWA (Self employed Womens Association), Ahmedabad, India and North South Dialogue, Germany, that examines poverty in a micro context with the methodology of an Exposure and Dialogue Programme (EDP) that is essentially an attempt to understand poverty first hand and record some of the factors that lead to the overcoming of it. The EDPs are used to assist understanding of the situation of SEWA members, appreciation of the womenÆs strengths, and to find strategies to overcome problems. The first part of the publication My home, my workplace: A life of struggle for security presents the story of Kamlaben Koshti, a bidi worker and SEWA leader in Ahmedabad derived from an EPD on Empowerment through organising in 1999. It examines the process leading up to the EDP, with aims of gather experiences that couldbe used for the World Development Report on Poverty, for designing exposures for politicians, and testing the exposure methods for SEWAÆs own purposes. It goes on to give account for the life history of Kamlaben with lessons to be learnt; analyse the relevance of KamlabenÆs life for SEWAÆs policy, programmes and macro policy; and examining the process of meeting Kmlaben and comprehending her life. The second part of the report Struggling for security illustrates the lives of Savitaben Jivanbhai Valand, a midwife in Vihchiya, and Jetunben Razak Sheik, agarbatti roller in Bapunagar, derived from an EPD in 2001. It looks at the life histories of the two women and reflects on exposure, reflection and dialogue as means to understand vulnerability and to learn about risk management.
A group of development analysts had a dialogue about labour market, trade and poverty issues in 2004. They preceded the dialogue with exposure to the realities of the lives of six women from the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in Gujarat, India. The struggles faced by these women provided the frame for the technical dialogue that followed. This is a compendium of personal and technical reflections of the analysts involved in the exercise. While the personal reflections focus on the experience of the participants, the technical reflections give an economic analysis of the situation of the women. The exercise was part of the Cornell-SEWA-WIEGO exposure and dialogue programme aimed at starting a dialogue between mainstream economists, SEWA activists, and WIEGO (Women) researchers around key assumptions of neo-classical economics and neo-liberal economic policies, which trouble ground level activists and researchers working on issues of employment and labour. This project is described in an appendix in this document. An epilogue examines the use of exposure methodology for dialogue and key issues.
This publication has been produced to improve the chances of success of Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs) by showing policy makers how strategic communication can help them achieve their objectives and by giving technocrats and officials guidance on best practices and lessons learnt from a community of practice spread around the world. Strategic communications is the active seeking of the perspectives and contributions of citizens so that they can help to shape policy. It also means ensuring that mechanisms are in place for a two-way flow of information and ideas between the government and citizens to contribute to building support for the national development strategy. Some of the main issues confronting strategic communications include: lack of information about strategies; lack of trust and confidence about the process; so-called participatory exercises are still too often mere public information campaigns; and too often the communications processes come to an end once the PRSP is finalised. The report is structured into four main parts: strategic communication in PRSPs: an overview; country case studies (Ghana, Moldova, Tanzania) and lessons learnt; short case studies (Bolivia, Cambodia, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Rwanda); and Appendices of additional material.
The manual has its origins in field work conducted by CIAT (International Centre for Tropical Agriculture) in Tanzania between 1989 and 1991. Previous PPAs (Participatory Poverty Assessments) have failed to develop measures of poverty that adequately reflect local concepts of poverty, and the conditions of poverty, so that these can be compared with other sites. This manual presents a method for measuring poverty that seeks to resolve this difficulty by identifying, extrapolating, and quantifying local perceptions of poverty and thus develop a regional measure of poverty. The centre of the methodology is inquiry into local perceptions of poverty, based on the local informantsÆ ability to rank their neighbours in terms of poverty and well-being status. The manual is intended for professionals that are involved in designing, planning, and evaluating research and/or development activities. It requires computer facilities to be fully implemented, and some familiarity with spreadsheet and statistics programmes. The methodology is described in nine steps: site selection; ranking well-being; well-being household grouping; extrapolating well-being rankings; developing indicators of well-being; constructing a well-being index; checking the internal and external logic of the well-being index; defining well-being categories according to the index; and creating and using a regional poverty profile. Throughout the manual it is illustrated how the method worked for a case study conducted in 1997-1998 in the departments of Atlantida, El Paraiso, and Yoro in Honduras.
This information pack from the Exposure and Dialogue Programme (http://www.exposure-nsd.de) contains instruction materials for immersion and exposure and dialogue programmes (EDPs). In EDPs participants share the life of poor, in order to get better insight in their life. The main aim of the EDP is to transform the existing structures in favour of the poor and underprivileged by encouraging key individuals form diverse sectors to make use of their respective competence and their possibilities to act in favour of the poor. ôGuidelines for Reflection and Dialogue in Exposure and Dialogue Programmesö are concerned with the two phases that come after the exposure phase. They cover the time spent in reflection of the experiences of exposures and in deepening these experiences in dialogue. The guidelines go throw five steps of dealing with this process including individual reflection; telling key stories, communicating the main experiences of the exposure; thematic deepening of experiences to feed into policy development; north-south dialogue and networking; and reflecting on consequences and follow-up. ôGuidelines for Facilitators of Exposure and Dialogue Programmesö goes through all the phases of the EDP and looks specifically at the role of the facilitator. It gives thirteen key recommendations on how implement an EDP. The ôHand-out for shaping the Immersion Process: Exposure, Reflection and Dialogueö is directed at participants of an immersion programme, and gives practical tips for shaping the phases of a programme, and the individual steps that participants should take during the course of the programme. The ôHand-out for shaping the process of Immersion and for analysing the findings about vulnerability, life cycle risks and the risk management strategies of women workersö is directed specifically at participants of an EDP undertaken with the Self Employed WomenÆs Association, SEWA, in Gujarat, India. It contains tolls for shaping the phases of exposure and reflection, and for the analysis of life cycle risks and for writing life stories focussing on risk management strategies. The booklet öDevelopment has got a faceö gives an overview of EDP process, and presents experiences from EDPs conducted by the Association for the promotion of North-South Dialogue in Brazil, the Philippines, India and Bolivia. The pack also contains an example of a brief report from an EDP conducted with SEWA, India.
This pack contains materials from the Grass Roots Immersion Program (GRIP), an exposure and dialogue programme for sensitising World Bank staff to the lives of the poor. The ôGrass-roots Immersion Program Notebookö for participants in the GRIP contains a programme description; programme guidelines; tables with placement opportunities with active and previous GRIP participants from a wide range of countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with site profiles; GRIP profile form; site selection notification form; budget information form; ex-World Bank staff resource list; references on cross-cultural communication including brief analytical texts and a case study from the village Ntita Kalambayi, Zambia; recommendations for maintaining participant health during exposure; and post-immersion readings including de-briefing and dissemination to colleagues. ôGrass Roots Immersion Program Guidelinesö gives direct guidance to participants in GRIP on site selection, orientation and financial support, and gives a brief overview of the Executive Development Programme and the GRIP. The pack also contains a photo-documentation of a GRIP immersion programme undertaken in collaboration with SEWA (Self Employed WomenÆs Association) of Gujurat, India.
This paper examines immersion as a method for of knowing the community, ôliving the realityö and sensitising people to the lives of the poor. It analyses the context, rationale, design and ethics and use of immersion programmes. It looks at the application of immersions to ActionAid India including case studies. The first case study describes the process of a rural and urban immersion organised by ActionAid for staff from DFID (Department for International Development, UK) and the British High Commission in Musahar Village, Uttar Pradesh. It includes details on planning, practical arrangements and reflections for future immersion visits. The second case study describes the use of immersion for sensitising ActionAid staff and head-quarters planning. It describes the background, objectives and design of this immersion programme. It looks specifically at immersion with marginalised families and as an integral part of structured capacity building. This is followed by one of the participantÆs personal account of the immersion experiences from the village Bala. A brief report on the experiences of a participant from the immersion programme I Musahar village.
This report documents the 1998 village immersion programme (VIP) for World Bank staff organised by the Gandhigram Rural Institute (GRI) in Tamil Nadu, India. The objectives of the programme were to provide an opportunity to the bank staff to immerse themselves in the social reality of villagers by staying in the villages, listening to the villagers, particularly the disadvantaged and women, and learn from them of their concerns and issues that help or hinder their development; and to understand the potential of poor communities to improve their living conditions when they are provided with support and opportunities for development by the government, NGOs and CBOs (community based organisations). The programme was organised in four different villages from the 4th to the 11th of December 1998. The major components of the programme were: orientation on the programme; actual immersion in the villages; visit to NGOs; interaction with the District Collector and development officials; and reflections on the VIP. The report presents some guidelines for immersion; the activities of the VIP; and reflections and observations of facilitators, Bank staff and villagers on the VIP. It also includes details on placements and the programme schedule.
This synthesis and review of participatory work on illbeing and poverty is part of the "Consultations with the Poor" project, which has undertaken to work with poor people in 23 countries to dsicover their perspective on four key themes: illbeing and wellbeing, problems and priorities, institutional relationships and gender. It examines participatory work undertken outside of national level participatory poverty assessments and represents some of the work on illbeing and poverty carried out by NGOs, research institutes and advocacy organisations. The collection of work repeatedly shows that, from the perspectives of poor people, context-specific livelihood issues and their dynamics at both the inter- and intra-household levels are central to the experience of poverty, and to identifying and taking advantage of opportunities to leave it behind.
The Small Enterprise Foundation (SEF) is a micro-finance NGO working in South Africa to provide savings and credit facilities to support business development of the poorest people. Reacting to a realisation that they were not reaching the poorest people, the SEF undertook a pilot study using participatory wealth ranking to establish people's own criteria of poverty. These proved to differ from the externally judged criteria that they had been using to assess eligibility for membership, and led to the adoption of participatory mapping and wealth ranking instead. Their challenge was then one of scale; how to apply this methodology to villages of 700 - 1000 households? This article focuses on some of the challenges faced in designing a cost-effective system that would work in such large villages. It uses Bhungeni village as a case study to illustrate the application of the methodology and then goes on to discuss some of the wider issues of the relevance and use of wealth ranking in the context of a micro-finance programme.