This report presents the preliminary results of a participatory study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica carried out during September - October 1995 using a Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA) methodology. It describes findings from 5 poor urban communities in Jamaica on local perceptions of poverty and violence, and the causal relationships that produce and reproduce violence. The PUA began by eliciting local people's conceptions of poverty and vulnerability as an "entry-point" to discuss the sensitive theme of violence. The study clearly identified that violence in the selected communities erodes two key assets - labour and social capital - which are vital for reducing poverty, and ends with conclusions of specific relevance to the design of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund.
This report is based on a research study conducted in five communities in the Northern Province using PRA. Both the formal and informal interview methods were used for collecting additional information. A detailed account of the communities under study is provided. It contains an assessment of the needs and problems encountered in the villages as defined and perceived by the community themselves. A large section of the report is devoted to analysing the causes of poverty and identifying and prioritising community needs using PRA methods. Guidelines for drawing up a project proposal are also presented. An appendix (3) contains tables and diagrams prepared by the communities using PRA methods for each village.
Participatory Poverty Assessment: incorporating poor people's perspectives into poverty assessment work
This paper makes the case for conducting Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) and sets out a methodology for conducting them. PPAs have the following principal elements: a poverty profile (which analyses the depth, social and cultural nature, gender disparities and geographic spread of poverty); a review of current government policies relating to poverty; an overview of NGOs and community-based organisations working towards the alleviation of poverty; an analysis of the safety nets (both government programs and sociocultural mechanisms) in place; and, based on the above, a suggested country strategy of priority measures the government should take to reduce poverty. The section on methodology discusses interviews, focus groups, participant observation, institutional assessment, mapping, ranking and triangulation as important techniques. The paper concludes with a timetable for setting up and conducting a PPA.
This is the report of a study designed to reach some broad conclusions about social, economic and cultural change in rural and peri-urban communities of mainland Tanzania. It draws on previous accounts and on group interviews and other RRA methods. Substantive findings concern the responses of members of rural communities to the process of economic liberalisation and their reception of constitutional reforms leading to the adoption of a multi-party political system. Regarding methodology, the study confirmed the value of combining existing literature with fresh fieldwork, although problems of generating generalisable conclusions from location-specific material are acknowledged. Focus-groups were found to be particularly useful, when combined with the possibility of drawing on the long-term field experience of researchers.
This pack contains materials from the Grass Roots Immersion Program (GRIP), an exposure and dialogue programme for sensitising World Bank staff to the lives of the poor. The ôGrass-roots Immersion Program Notebookö for participants in the GRIP contains a programme description; programme guidelines; tables with placement opportunities with active and previous GRIP participants from a wide range of countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with site profiles; GRIP profile form; site selection notification form; budget information form; ex-World Bank staff resource list; references on cross-cultural communication including brief analytical texts and a case study from the village Ntita Kalambayi, Zambia; recommendations for maintaining participant health during exposure; and post-immersion readings including de-briefing and dissemination to colleagues. ôGrass Roots Immersion Program Guidelinesö gives direct guidance to participants in GRIP on site selection, orientation and financial support, and gives a brief overview of the Executive Development Programme and the GRIP. The pack also contains a photo-documentation of a GRIP immersion programme undertaken in collaboration with SEWA (Self Employed WomenÆs Association) of Gujurat, India.