This is the report of a study designed to reach some broad conclusions about social, economic and cultural change in rural and peri-urban communities of mainland Tanzania. It draws on previous accounts and on group interviews and other RRA methods. Substantive findings concern the responses of members of rural communities to the process of economic liberalisation and their reception of constitutional reforms leading to the adoption of a multi-party political system. Regarding methodology, the study confirmed the value of combining existing literature with fresh fieldwork, although problems of generating generalisable conclusions from location-specific material are acknowledged. Focus-groups were found to be particularly useful, when combined with the possibility of drawing on the long-term field experience of researchers.
Implementation Strategy for Jones Town: Urban poverty, Kingston, Jamaica. Preparation of a strategic plan supporting the revitalisation of Jones Town.
This study illustrates the planning of an Implementation Strategy for the revitalisation of Jones Town. The study was requested by the Kingston Restoration Company (KRC) in collaboration with the ODA. The study identified the main issues in the area, undertaking an assessment of poverty, the institutional arrangements that would be needed to improve conditions, a review of community based action, a more detailed consideration of economic and employment conditions alongside a reconsideration of the development potential within the area. Based on this analysis, an Implementation Strategy was developed. The investigation and planning processes involved the use of participatory methods particularly mapping, ranking and group discussions.
This report presents the preliminary results of a participatory study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica carried out during September - October 1995 using a Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA) methodology. It describes findings from 5 poor urban communities in Jamaica on local perceptions of poverty and violence, and the causal relationships that produce and reproduce violence. The PUA began by eliciting local people's conceptions of poverty and vulnerability as an "entry-point" to discuss the sensitive theme of violence. The study clearly identified that violence in the selected communities erodes two key assets - labour and social capital - which are vital for reducing poverty, and ends with conclusions of specific relevance to the design of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund.
This report is based on a research study conducted in five communities in the Northern Province using PRA. Both the formal and informal interview methods were used for collecting additional information. A detailed account of the communities under study is provided. It contains an assessment of the needs and problems encountered in the villages as defined and perceived by the community themselves. A large section of the report is devoted to analysing the causes of poverty and identifying and prioritising community needs using PRA methods. Guidelines for drawing up a project proposal are also presented. An appendix (3) contains tables and diagrams prepared by the communities using PRA methods for each village.
Participatory Poverty Assessment: incorporating poor people's perspectives into poverty assessment work
This paper makes the case for conducting Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) and sets out a methodology for conducting them. PPAs have the following principal elements: a poverty profile (which analyses the depth, social and cultural nature, gender disparities and geographic spread of poverty); a review of current government policies relating to poverty; an overview of NGOs and community-based organisations working towards the alleviation of poverty; an analysis of the safety nets (both government programs and sociocultural mechanisms) in place; and, based on the above, a suggested country strategy of priority measures the government should take to reduce poverty. The section on methodology discusses interviews, focus groups, participant observation, institutional assessment, mapping, ranking and triangulation as important techniques. The paper concludes with a timetable for setting up and conducting a PPA.
This describes a Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) undertaken by the Government of Kenya and the World Bank during Febuary-April 1994. It had three primary objectives; to understand poverty from the perspective of the poor, to start a process of dialogue between policy makers, district level providers and the poor and to address the issue of the 'value added' of the PPA approach to understanding poverty. Methods used included mapping, wealth ranking, seasonal analysis, trend and price analysis, focus group discussions, key informant interviews; visual card methods, gender analysis, understanding health seeking behaviour; and incomplete sentences. Statistically the findings of the PPA and the Welfare Monitoring Survey based on an established poverty line were strikingly similar. The study also found a gap in the perception of poverty between the poor themselves and district officials. Separate chapters look at poverty in urban Nairobi and Mandera district.
Poverty and well being : rural community views and policy implications for socio-economic and natural resource development.
Based on research in poor village communities in West Bengal using participatory mapping and wealth grouping exercises, this paper analyses rural people's perceptions of poverty and suggests policy measures based on them.
In collaboration with Shinyanga Regional government, UNDP is funding a pilot project on decentralised poverty eradication initiatives, as part of its programme support for Tanzania (1997 - 2002). This document reports on a participatory poverty assessment (PPA) carried out in eight villages in phase I of the project. The PPA went one stage further than earlier PPAs in sub-Sahara Africa in that it sought not only to enrich poverty profiles with local understanding but also to build in as a central component, action-oriented research and planning. An attempt was also made to make the PPA a locally owned activity and capacity building process. An overview of the process methodology is provided, a brief account of the findings and also a review of the impact to date of the whole Shinyanga Human Development Report process at village and government level.
Guidance notes on increasing the participation of the poor in the assessment of the impact of development interventions.
These notes examine the justificaion for the involvement of primary stakeholders in impact assessment and how efforts to do so can be assessed and finally how this can be done.
This paper describes a method for measuring poverty which combines features of wealth or well-being ranking with a survey.
This report documents the 1998 village immersion programme (VIP) for World Bank staff organised by the Gandhigram Rural Institute (GRI) in Tamil Nadu, India. The objectives of the programme were to provide an opportunity to the bank staff to immerse themselves in the social reality of villagers by staying in the villages, listening to the villagers, particularly the disadvantaged and women, and learn from them of their concerns and issues that help or hinder their development; and to understand the potential of poor communities to improve their living conditions when they are provided with support and opportunities for development by the government, NGOs and CBOs (community based organisations). The programme was organised in four different villages from the 4th to the 11th of December 1998. The major components of the programme were: orientation on the programme; actual immersion in the villages; visit to NGOs; interaction with the District Collector and development officials; and reflections on the VIP. The report presents some guidelines for immersion; the activities of the VIP; and reflections and observations of facilitators, Bank staff and villagers on the VIP. It also includes details on placements and the programme schedule.
This manual presents methods by which the poor and the poorest can be identified so that they can be reached by the services of microfinance institutions - and so that the non-poor can be excluded from them. Whilst poverty targeting has long been regarded as difficult and costly, the authors argue that these methods, developed through field experience, are practical and cost-effective. The CASHPOR (Credit and Savings for the Hard-Core Poor) Network has developed a House Index that is adapted to the house styles of all countries in Asia where the Network programmes are operating. The Small Enterprise Foundation (SEF) has taken the methodology of Participatory Wealth Ranking and developed it to become an effective and cost effective means of identifying the poor. The manual gives practical details of these two methods for use by microfinance practitioners and others.
The manual has its origins in field work conducted by CIAT (International Centre for Tropical Agriculture) in Tanzania between 1989 and 1991. Previous PPAs (Participatory Poverty Assessments) have failed to develop measures of poverty that adequately reflect local concepts of poverty, and the conditions of poverty, so that these can be compared with other sites. This manual presents a method for measuring poverty that seeks to resolve this difficulty by identifying, extrapolating, and quantifying local perceptions of poverty and thus develop a regional measure of poverty. The centre of the methodology is inquiry into local perceptions of poverty, based on the local informantsÆ ability to rank their neighbours in terms of poverty and well-being status. The manual is intended for professionals that are involved in designing, planning, and evaluating research and/or development activities. It requires computer facilities to be fully implemented, and some familiarity with spreadsheet and statistics programmes. The methodology is described in nine steps: site selection; ranking well-being; well-being household grouping; extrapolating well-being rankings; developing indicators of well-being; constructing a well-being index; checking the internal and external logic of the well-being index; defining well-being categories according to the index; and creating and using a regional poverty profile. Throughout the manual it is illustrated how the method worked for a case study conducted in 1997-1998 in the departments of Atlantida, El Paraiso, and Yoro in Honduras.
This synthesis and review of participatory work on illbeing and poverty is part of the "Consultations with the Poor" project, which has undertaken to work with poor people in 23 countries to dsicover their perspective on four key themes: illbeing and wellbeing, problems and priorities, institutional relationships and gender. It examines participatory work undertken outside of national level participatory poverty assessments and represents some of the work on illbeing and poverty carried out by NGOs, research institutes and advocacy organisations. The collection of work repeatedly shows that, from the perspectives of poor people, context-specific livelihood issues and their dynamics at both the inter- and intra-household levels are central to the experience of poverty, and to identifying and taking advantage of opportunities to leave it behind.
The Small Enterprise Foundation (SEF) is a micro-finance NGO working in South Africa to provide savings and credit facilities to support business development of the poorest people. Reacting to a realisation that they were not reaching the poorest people, the SEF undertook a pilot study using participatory wealth ranking to establish people's own criteria of poverty. These proved to differ from the externally judged criteria that they had been using to assess eligibility for membership, and led to the adoption of participatory mapping and wealth ranking instead. Their challenge was then one of scale; how to apply this methodology to villages of 700 - 1000 households? This article focuses on some of the challenges faced in designing a cost-effective system that would work in such large villages. It uses Bhungeni village as a case study to illustrate the application of the methodology and then goes on to discuss some of the wider issues of the relevance and use of wealth ranking in the context of a micro-finance programme.