Developing Farmer Field Schools and Farmer Networks: Case Study of an NGO- coordinated Integrated Pest Management Project in Indonesia
This paper describes World Education's experiences in supporting local NGOs and farmers organisations in developing activities which promote cooperative exchange among farmers, NGOs, GOs, and researchers for the development of community-based sustainable agricultureprogrammes focused initially on Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Through the development of these programmes the project aims to assist Indonesian farm families to develop critical, ecological, decision-making, and leadership skills that reduce environmental degradation and increase productivity in their farming systems. Activities of IPM farmer field schools, cross-visits, collaborative linkages with researchers, and training of farmer trainers are discussed. These activities have been effective in a) initiating and establishing a group learning process among farmers in their communities and b) linking farmer field school groups together in active local networks.
Classroom observations and participatory learning for action activities : a view to the experiences of girls.
A draft copy of a manual which seeks to address some of the factors causing low attendance, performance and participation of girls at school, by providing a means by which those involved in education can analyse interactions in the classroom, examine how instruction is differentiated by gender and identify gender-bounded attitudes and perceptions that influence learning , opportunities and achievement.
The first part of the manual describes techniques which can be used by teachers and inspectors to observe what takes place in the classroom as a basis for discussion and the second part concerns how Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) activities can build on this.
This "short video is to be used in training seminars to generate dicussion on the different technologies used in distance education. The video outlines three case studies - one in Mexico, South Africa and Chile which use television, interactive radio instruction and computers as teaching tools to improve the quality of basic education."
'Before we were sleeping, now we are awake': preliminary evaluation of the stepping stones sexual health programme in The Gambia
Community based behavioural interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviour have yet to be shown to be effective in the developing world. Stepping Stones is a participatory STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection)/HIV prevention workshop programme based on empowerment techniques, which have been adapted to an infertility prevention framework in Gambia. This paper describes a preliminary evaluation in 2 villages where the intervention was carried out compared to 2 control villages. Methods used include: participatory evaluation; in-depth interviews; focus groups discussions; a knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire administered to a random sample of 25% of the adult population; and monitoring of condom supply. The structure of the evaluation is based on the themes derived from the qualitative data. The infertility prevention approach made it possible to overcome resistance to discussing the topics of sexual and reproductive health. An atmosphere of trust was created and men were persuaded to participate in the programme as they felt that their own needs were being addressed. Participants enjoyed the programme and found the content relevant. Knowledge of the modes of transmission of HIV and STIs and levels of risk awareness increased. The value of condoms in particular situations was recognised: for sex before marriage, within marriage (when the woman is breast-feeding) and with non-marital partners. Women reported that they would insist on condom use outside marriage and even ask their husbands to use condoms for non-marital sex. Condom monitoring data suggested that condom uptake had increased. It was reported that there was significant increase in dialogue within marriage with the consequence that there were fewer disagreements and incidents of domestic violence. Diffusion of the messages of Stepping Stones appeared to have taken place with non-participants including children.
This chapter shares some reflections on the role of conflict in training for participatory development. In particular, the workshop setting can be viewed as an "outer role model" in which participants can build their skills for subsequent fieldwork. This means dealing with conflicts, including those resulting from gender and racial differences, as an integral part of workshops.
These guidelines are the result of dedicated work originally in Bangladesh, where this approach was developed, and subsequently in Malawi where it was applied and improved. The document explains the Community-led approach to development (CLA), examines its successes, defines the key principles and goes on to detail the main stages of using this approach to development. It concludes with future challenges. There is a short animated film entitled ‘Citizen-led approach’ that accompanies these guidelines.