This handbook provides an overview of new methods of community planning within the context of the built environment. It is based on the recognition that local involvement in the planning and management of the environment is the best way to ensure safe, strong and sustainable communities and that this is applicable throughout the world. It is laid out in a straightforward, jargon-free format that reflects its aim of being of use to individuals and residents as well as policy makers and practitioners. After a general introduction there is an A-Z of general principles, followed by the biggest section, an A-Z of 53 Community Planning Methods that runs from Action Planning Event to Video Soapbox. A selection of scenarios follows, covering some common development situations and illustrating ways in which the different methods can be combined in an overall strategy. It ends with lists of useful formats and checklists, publications and contacts.
This manual reflects the principles of local governance espoused by a group of education and development oriented NGOs in partnership with the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. The manual had its origins in a pilot training programme for local governance in which the NGO group placed grassroots participation at the centre of local governance. In this manual, the basic orientation course of the barangay (local administrative unit) training programme is outlined. Links are made between grassroots participation in local governance and participatory democracy in national policy.
This video, produced by the Asian Productivity Organisation, introduces Participatory Project Cycle Management (PPCM) a planning concept used in community driven planning. The training process on PPCM organises learning in a cyclical manner. Important elements of the training are theoretical inputs, close interactions with the villagers, documentation and systematic processing of information generated through interaction with the villagers, critical reflection among participants, and validation of information through feedback sessions from the villagers.
It combines the methods and principles of Project Cycle Management (PCM) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). PPCM structures the interaction among communities, government and non-government organisations and international partners as a systematic and joint planning process.
In 1999 the Asian Productivity Organisation organised an international training programme on PPCM in collaboration with the Centre of Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP) and the National; Productivity Organisation (NPO), Bangladesh. This video is the documentation of that training course
Participatory review of changes after a stepping stones workshop in an Islamic context, the Gambia, February 2000
This paper presents a participatory review of the Stepping Stone (SS) project directed at Muslim communities in the Gambia. The SS training package is aimed at informing about sexual and reproductive health, and the prevention of HIV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It has been adapted by the Gambian government, Medical Research Council (MRC UK), ActionAid, Gambia Family Planning Association, and the Worldwide Evangelisation for Christ mission, to make it appropriate for Muslim communities in Gambia. In reflection of community membersÆ needs, the workshop was presented as a training package addressing peopleÆs concerns about infertility and its links with STDs. The adapted SS workshop was then piloted in two communities. Subsequently, in February 2000 a participatory review of the SS activities was organised by SS facilitators together with MRC UK and ActionAid Gambia staff, using diagramming techniques designed for non-literates (Participatory Learning and Action, PLA). This report documents the results from the review that took place over two days in one of the SS communities, with a young menÆs peer group of unmarried participants up to 24 years old from the SS workshop; an older menÆs peer group with SS workshop participants over the age of 24; and a womenÆs group consisting of SS workshop peer groups for both younger and older women. Each group discussed and carried out exercises with focus on hopes, fears and expectations; positive and negative changes in the community since the introduction of SS; and development of activity plans. Some of the PLA techniques used were time lines, trend analysis, change trees, and matrix scoring. The report presents notes and quotes, and summary tables from these group discussions.
This tool kit from the African network on Participatory Approaches provides a training manual and tool box for participatory village planning based on experiences with Village Level Participatory Approaches (VLPA) in five West-African countries (Mali, Guinea, C¶te d'Ivoire, Benin, and Burkina Faso) and Madagascar. The process of participatory village planning is explained step by step and illustrated by examples from several case studies in these countries. A set of cards (tools) spells out the successive steps in the planning process. Constraints and enabling conditions for a country-wide implementation of the approach in the new political and social setting of African countries are also dealt with. The manual is directed towards field practitioners, but also to policy makers who are responsible for formulating strategies of rural development and agricultural extension services. It comprises three parts. Part one presents the objectives and general principles of the participatory approach. It also discusses participatory methods and provides details on the steps and tools appropriate to each stage of the process. To facilitate their use, the tools are also presented in individual worksheets, which form part of this manual (the tool box). Part two describes the underlying conditions necessary for successful implementation of the participatory approach. It also discusses the roles of the various actors involved. Part three describes the conditions necessary for successful implementation of the participatory approach. It also describes what adoption of the approach means for organization of service delivery at the local, regional and national levels.
Worker-led participatory research and evaluation: lessons from the real world: reflections of the SREPP participants
In 1997, four US union health and safety training programmes entered into a three-year, multi-union learning-action-research collaborative, the Self-sufficiency Research and Evaluation Pilot Project (SREPP). This initiative sought to build the research and evaluation capacities of the participating unions trainings by offering a new model of participatory learning and action in the area of worker health and safety. Existing examples of participatory action research in this field have tended to concentrate on single worksites and start with a stakeholder labour management model. By contrast this project has sought to foster participatory learning across programmes from a union perspective. It uses and expends on the peer training model to institutionalise a new base of worker produced knowledge. During the last of SREPP's four training workshops participants reflected on their experiences in the project through a series of participatory activities. In this article the background to the project is followed by the words of SREPP participants describing what it takes to learn about and do participatory evaluation in the context of union-based, worker-led health and safety training programmes. This includes a look at what was learned, and how, as well as supports and barriers to participatory evaluation and the model that they have developed.
The tips for trainers section describes a variant of a well-known introductions exercise used as an 'ice-breaker' to introduce participants to each other in workshop settings. The game pairs participants by different language group (e.g. English-French) and once, paired up, gets them to interview their partner as best they can and then present him or her back to the rest of the workshop. The process of pairing up is done by miming proverbs - people with 'miming actions' instructions have to act them out while those with the 'proverbs' have to identify which of the mime matches their proverb. It is a useful exercise in breaking down language barriers and initial feelings of embarrassment between workshop participants who do not all speak the same language.
Draft of a guide due out in January 2000 which is designed to help organisations recognise their own potential and decide for themselves how to best address the challenges they face. It uses participatory methods and tools to enable organisations to assess their strength and weaknesses, reflect on their performance, learn from experience, identify priorities for program development and strengthen their organisational capacity. It is not a recipe to follow, but aims to give an understanding of the underlying concepts of capacity building and participatory action learning so that the reader can adapt the exercises and methods presented, or invent new ones.
Aimed at grassroots NGOs, 'From the Roots Up' gives a thorough guide to organisational capacity building and assessment. It includes an outline of the tools and building blocks that are useful to adapt and create participatory exercises, ways to prepare for and carry out organisational self-assessment, methods for facilitators to guide and support the process and details 47 participatory exercises appropriate to conduct with local NGO and community group members. (Later 2001 edition also available in French and Spanish from World Neighbors)
This folder, produced by the Jamaican Social Investment Fund, consists of seven short handbooks on CBOs . They are the result of observation of many Jamaican CBOs and they seek to address some of the common problems addressed by these organisations. These practical handbooks cover a number of topics: 1 The Community Based Organisation: looks at issues such as what a CBO is, how to get started, membership types, CBO structure, how to encourage new people, principles of evaluation and accountability, and registration. 2 Leadership and Motivation: here several issues are considered such as who the organisation belongs to, the constitution, job descriptions, meetings, how to stimulate creativity, building consensus and decision making, delegating and dealing with conflict. 3 Money Management and Fundraising: this handbook looks at the role of the Treasurer, the types of funds needed, different ways to raise funds, budgeting, accounting, financial reports, audit, credit and investment. 4 Planning Community Projects: various issues are considered such as developing a vision, identifying priorities, analysing the problem, analysing resources, analysing the past, analysing alternative solutions, analysing risk, planning activities and writing project proposals 5 Implementing Community Projects: this handbook takes the community project further by addressing implementation challenges, identifying beneficiaries, mobilising people to provide services, detailing the action plan, identifying the best time for implementation and monitoring of the project. 6 Evaluation of Community Projects: the issues around evaluating projects are looked at in this handbook and include questions such as why evaluate, who should evaluate, what should be evaluated and how should it be done. Evaluating people, planning and reporting are also addressed. 7 CBO Publicity and Networking; this last handbook looks at promoting the image the CBO through newsletters, press releases, presentations and by phone then goes on to consider communication in meetings, invitations and requests, and representation outside the community.
This toolkit was elaborated by the Economic Literacy Action Network (ELAN) in the USA. The aim of the toolkit is to help people strengthen their analysis of globalisation and share ideas of ways that people were struggling against globalisation internationally. The toolkit is based on a gathering held in Chicago 1998 where educational materials already created were shared and discussed, and on consequent sessions held in ELAN groups. It presents seven sessions on different subject related to globalisation, which can be used as a basis for discussion, learning and reflection, and is intended to be used in smaller groups. The sessions include exercises, questions and case studies. The toolkit first gives a brief introduction to the principles and practices of popular education and goes on to the sessions, with the following contributions: womenÆs education in the global economy, looking at how women indifferent countries and communities are tied together by the globalisation of production and markets; a global economy workshop in three parts focussing on power relations and new peopleÆs movements, and a globalisation glossary; Analysing the financial crises in Asia; Privatisation; WTO for beginners; a workbook dealing with welfare, crime, injustice and health care from a Southern perspective, including a critical thinking toolbox; a participatory workshop on womenÆs labour and economic globalisation. The toolkit is concluded with a directory to ELAN groups.
This three-volume set from Community Partnership centre (CPC) includes a participant's journal, a facilitator's handbook, and a facilitatorÆs resource guide. It describes and outlines the process for developing a CPC Citizen Learning Team and promoting participation in sustainable community development efforts. The model facilitates the community participation in the identification, evaluation and monitoring of community concerns. The participantÆs journal is designed to be used during work in a Learning Team divided into phases, where each phase begins with a question that provides an objective for team members to follow. The facilitatorÆs handbook is intended both for trained researchers and community members who wish to facilitate participation in the community development process, giving an introduction to the CPC evolving model for participatory community development research and practice. It goes through this process giving advice to prospective facilitators, phase-by-phase and providing general tips on meeting facilitation. The facilitatorÆs resource guide provides brief articles and other information sources such as internet links, relating to the topics of each phase. The phases in the project are divided as follows: how to work together and define goals; rationale and selection of what to learn; sourcing information and knowledge; action planning; evaluation and updating of the learning agenda; and visions for the future.
This manual draws on CARE's field experience in working with communities using participatory approaches. Part One uses case studies from countries such as Bangladesh, Madagascar, Somalia and Peru to review and critique CARE's experience with participatory approaches. Part Two focuses on conceptual reflections, which include looking at participation and the project cycle as well as using quantitative surveys to complement PLA findings. Part Three gives a comprehensive step by step guide to participatory tools and techniques, which is preceded by an overview of PLA and finishes with a look at tackling documentation, analysis, synthesis and report writing.
This paper explores literature related to the dynamics and methods of strengthening community-based participation in the context of programmes for democratic decentralisation. It specifically examines the merging of two distinct traditions of participation, social/project and political, and looks at the linking of development with the state, and a concept of governance that is accountable to civil society. In so doing, the authors demonstrate the emergence of a new definition of participation as citizenship, and contend that such new forms of citizen participation can best be seen at the local level, where ægrassrootsÆ interact with those of governance and the state. Barriers to citizen participation in local governance are discussed, such as: power relations; no previous history of grassroots/citizen organisations; weak or non-existent participatory skills; lack of will at both central and local government level; the level of participation; and the paucity of financial resources at local level. Ways in which these obstacles can be overcome are subsequently suggested, including participatory planning, citizen education and awareness building, and training and sensitising of local officials. The paper concludes with an illustration of a successful experience of citizen participation (participatory budgeting in Latin America), and a brief discussion of issues for further research.