Brief note on results of internal evaluation regarding the use of PRA by The Community Action Programme in Uganda. In the programme trained community facilitators used PRA techniques with partner communities to develop micro-projects. The report outlines some of the short-comings of the facilitation process based on the results of a survey of a random sample of the partner communities. The survey examined, attendance by men and women of PRA sessions, PRA tools remembered by participants and aspects learnt, the relationship between men and women's main problems and the final choice of micro-project and their level of agreement with it.
A restocking project in Isiolo District in north-east Kenya aimed to help displaced families go back to a 'traditional' pastoral way of life by giving them goats. Success ranking was one of the PRA techniques used to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the scheme. The objective was to determine each individual household's level of success and to elicit the local people's perception of success. The success ranking enabled the evaluation team to see how effective the programme had been, and what the constraints were for those families who had not been very successful.
Divided into 4 regional and one worldwide section, this bibliography includes a wealth of material on all aspects of PRA. The first section, on Nepal, includes a number of titles in Nepali and includes publications by local organisations and Nepalese branches of international ones, as well as work within Nepal carried out by other agencies and individuals. For Nepal, there is a focus on forestry issues. In all sections, the subject matter covered ranges from forestry, agriculture, methodology, health, training, gender, women, evaluation, etc. The titles within each regional section are not ordered, but each item is described systematically. Articles are defined as thoeretical or practical, by region, by subject matter, classification, tools, a summary and key words.
A major part of this twelve day workshop was spent in fieldwork, using the PRA techniques (listed in Section II) learnt in theory classes. This report describes in detail the methodology and findings of the field exercises, showing clearly the practical problems encountered (such as how to "reach" the women) as well as the lively and diverse information that can emerge from PRA activities. The fieldwork in Chimontu and Chongwe resulted in two methodological innovations : i) the seasonality analysis of illness was combined with trend analysis to show how illness had changed over ten years ii) the institutional diagram was used to show what the group would like to see in the area. Points about location of fieldwork, timing, structure of training and group composition conclude this report. The appendices include an interesting list of participants' concerns after completing the fieldwork, plus the actual visual results of the PRA activities.
Rapid Assessment of the Food and Nutrition Security Impact of the CARE Food Programming Activitites in Eastern Shewa and Western Hararghe
A rapid food security assessment was carried out in Eastern Shewa and Western Hararghe to determine what CARE food-assisted projects have been undertaken, and what impact they have had on the participants. To determine whether the projects were properly designed, a rapid assessment of the household food security situation in each project area was carried out. Peasant Associations were selected on the basis of accessibility, main economic activity, distance from main roads, and history of food assistance. Two villages in which CARE assistance was not provided were surveyed in order to compare project areas with nonproject areas. Information sources included a document review, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Other interviews were conducted with government agencies, and collaborating institutions such as United Nations organizations and other NGOs.
This reports on ActionAid's project aimed at strengthening emergency preparedness and responses in famine vulnerable areas in a number of African countries. It examines the setting up of Community Based Food Security Monitoring Systems (CBMS) that help field staff make timely predictions about impending food shortages. One of the principles of a CBMS is that it is 'people-centred', and the community should be involved with data collection, interpretation and response. The aim is to build up a picture of the way peoples' livelihoods operate and what constraints and stresses they face. To assess the food security situation, PRA techniques are used including semi-structured interviews with key informants and group discussions with farmers and village leaders. PRA is also used to collect data on early warning indicators. The paper comments however that it is best not to take a full community-managed approach in circumstances where a number of participatory prerequisites are not in place.
Integrating formal sample surveys and Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques: summary based on Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques and the monitoring and evaluation of IFAD projects in Sudan
This summary is based on a report written for the Monitoring and Evaluation Division of the IFAD, with the general objective of examining the use of RRA methods for M&E. That report proposes a taxonomy of survey/RRA techniques and methods, which can be regarded as "a menu", thereby allowing choices to fit the precise needs of the user of information and institutional context. As such, the author argues, RRAs and formal surveys can be mixed to great effect. The criteria for such a taxonomy is outlined in this paper, as is a summary table of the main RRA techniques. The lessons from case study RRAs discussed in the original report are mostly positive, confirming "the value of weaving an RRA in to existing data" and showing how a low cost M&E system could be built on this. This is a useful and stimulating report with some clear summary diagrams and an extensive bibliography.
The Impact of the Catchment Approach to Soil and Water Conservation: Summary of an Impact Study by the Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya
A Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture team used PRA to assess the impact of its Catchment Approach in six catchments, focusing on community level changes. This impact analysis linked differences in the implementation process with differences in results. It was clear that increased levels of community mobilization and involvement led to greater, quicker and replicating changes. One page summaries for each catchment include: process of implementation; changes in productivity; changes in resource degradation; changes in local resilience and vulnerability; changes in self-dependence of local groups; replication; and operational procedures. Two further impact studies are planned; the full report should be finished in November 1994.
This manual "is designed to provide ideas on how to learn from and with rural women (and men!)". Its aim is to convince the readers of the need to consider gender and environmental issues in the planning, implementation and M&E of any development activity. The introduction reviews the general issues. Section 2 is a set of guide-lines on communication, learning and analysis of techniques for use in investigating local natural resources issues with rural women. These techniques are largely drawn from the RRA repertoire but their specific application to gender and the environment makes this volume more than 'just another RRA manual'. There are useful boxed examples of the use of various techniques and a list of books and organisations which offer more information on the subject. Section 3 comprises a number of illustrative case studies by groups of rural women. Section 4 describes some simple techniques which have been applied in conservation projects and case studies of how groups of rural women have used these ideas.
This document describes the evolution of an auto-evaluation programme in the Gao and Tombouctou regions where ACORD-Mali is working to support informal village groups and associations. The programme aims to develop techniques which involve communities from project design to evaluation and is collaborating with two local research organisations, IMRAD and IRAM. Mechanisms used are: an identification/animation phase; action research; use of local resource persons; co-operation and consultation with the government; links with regional and local planning; and auto-evaluation. The paper describes the stages of the auto-evaluation process: both ACORD staff and communities set criteria and indicators and take part in the evaluation.
Report from a community woodland resource management project run by ENDA (Environment and Development Activities), Zimbabwe. A workshop was held to identify key concerns, their solutions and any constraints which were then all worked into a piece of theatre which would expose conflict over trees. The play was then used to stimulate discussion in a community workshop. Community members were given questions to discuss and dramatise as short sketches. Through this process, participants identified more closely with the issues raised and were more motivated to tackle them. Minimal external direction was needed for this workshop.
Participatory Evaluation Process [PEP] is an "approach to development" which has been employed in some World Vision [WV] international offices during much of the 1980s. In this paper the main objectives of PEP are summarised. These are; 1. To involve beneficiaries in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluating programmes 2. To empower communities 3. to promote an environment of mutual trust and respect among community members. The remainder of the paper is devoted to a stage by stage description of the PEP process. These include; Community description, Information gathering - or "problem focus", Problem analysis, and decision making. This is a slightly outdated paper which makes a few of the 'classic errors' - for example, in terms of who actually analyses, lists and represents the data - but is included here, as another common example of a PE approach.