A participatory methodology for community-based land and resource use planning: a case study from Tanzania
This paper provides a brief account of a participatory methodology used in the development of land and resource use plans in Tanzania's rift valley. In recent years population pressure has led to increasing land and resource use conflict between the three groups - agriculturalists, pastoralists and hunter-gatherers - who inhabit the area. A participatory approach was used to provide an understanding of the complex issues involved and to build trust and cooperation between the different groups. Mapping, transects, seasonal diagramming, semi-structured and open interviewing were used in the process of involving stakeholder groups in developing land and resource use plans for their village territory.
The report outlines the findings and process of a participatory planning exercise initiated by Oxfam in northern Mutara, Rwanda. After the genocide of 1994, some community structures were becoming visible in the Mutara region which indicated potential for a development programme. It was also seen as an important area because from 1994 there was an emerging environmental crisis with large numbers of people and cattle entering an environmentally fragile area. The first three days were spent training NGO staff and local authority and community members in PRA methods and participatory approaches to development. This was followed by one week working with three communities, and culminated in drawing up outlines of action plans. The report discusses the approach and process of participatory learning and planning; what was learned from secondary sources; and the methods used and findings of the PRA exercises in the three communities.
The manual presents commonly used procedures for procurement and disbursement in World Bank-financed projects, and shows they are more suited for large investment projects rather than projects with community participation. The manual provides guidance to project designers on designing procurement, disbursement and accounting mechanisms for Bank financed projects with community participation. There is a checklist of issues and steps in designing procurement and disbursement, and discussion of the various procurement methods permissible under existing World Bank policies and regulations. Part II describes the key steps involved in designing such projects, providing guidelines with references to World Bank financed projects in the Africa region. It addresses issues commonly encountered by Task Managers, with relevant checklists. Samples are also provided.
This article is extracted from a report outlining the experiences of a partnership between the 'People's Dialogue', a national network linking representatives from illegal and informal settlements in South Africa, and a group of three organisations in India. These are SPARC, an NGO working broadly in the area of housing and community development; the National Slum Dwellers Federation; and Mahila Milan, a federation of women's collectives. The article describes several of the participatory methods and techniques which are used in community-based shelter training programmes, and explains why the training process is important to community development. It argues that experiential learning is a more useful approach than those offered by conventional training.
Regaining knowledge: an appeal to abandon illusions: manual for innovative, community-based shelter training programmes
This training manual for innovative, community-based shelter training programmes is the result of a partnership which has developed since 1991 between the People's Dialogue, a national network linking representatives from illegal and informal settlements in South Africa, and a group of three organisations in India. These are SPARC, an NGO working broadly in the area of housing and community development; the National Slum Dwellers Federation; and Mahila Milan, a federation of women's collectives. The first part of the manual describes the participation of the South African delegation in a shelter training programme in India. Part two focuses on a follow-up training conducted by the South African delegates in their own country, with the support of the Indian trainers. Forty leaders of the Federations of the Homeless Poor in South Africa took part as they assisted one township to explore their shelter options. The final section reflects on the kinds of methodology followed in the process and provides guidelines for training.
This article describes 'Development Planning for Real', a new approach for integrating participation into the uban planning process. It has grown out of 'Planning for Real', which is discussed in the article by Tony Gibson in the same issue of RRA Notes. Pilot trials of the approach are being held in a number of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Early pilot results from Cambodia, Tanzania and Zambia suggest that the approach can be successfully used to generate a community-controlled planning process in both rural and urban contexts, and in a variety of societies and cultures.
The document is in three parts. Part I reviews some definitions and concepts of participation in situation analysis and planning. Some field experiences with more-or-less rapid approaches to planning, including monitoring and evaluation, are presented and the difficulties and responsibilities which these entail are discussed. A number of recommendations are made regarding methods which can be used during different stages of the planning process, and regarding training in participatory methods. In Part II the methods used and their purpose in participatory planning are briefly described. Reference is also made to field experiences with these methods. Part III consists of an annotated bibliography, of which the main part is devoted to works on participatory planning with pastoralists, with a smaller sample of general works on PRA methods. The abstracts highlight the methods related to participatory planning. Finally, further information on relevant contact organizations and periodical sources of information are provided in the Annexes.
The Nhlangwini Integrated Rural Development Project aims to empower local people, in order that they may improve their quality of life, by helping them develop strategies for addressing basic needs. The Nhlangwini Ward is situated in southern KwaZulu, South Africa. Three workshops were held over a period of three months during 1989. The first examined development problems in the area; the second specifically probed those problems associated with family planning; the third was a development planning workshop, employing visual techniques described in some detail by the paper. Participants were asked to draw local resources by imagining they could view the area from a helicopter. The process of adopting visual techniques has resulted in a change in emphasis - as a result of findings, the integrated development programme has switched approaches with regard to issues facing women, and in terms of its goal setting mechanisms.
In October 1992, IIED conducted a PRA Training session for PATECORE and its partners, whose approach to land use management is widely known for its innovation and success. They operate in the Bam Province, Burkina Faso. This paper is a brief note, concerning the introduction of certain elements of PRA into their activities, notably network mapping and venn diagrams.
This manual "is designed to provide ideas on how to learn from and with rural women (and men!)". Its aim is to convince the readers of the need to consider gender and environmental issues in the planning, implementation and M&E of any development activity. The introduction reviews the general issues. Section 2 is a set of guide-lines on communication, learning and analysis of techniques for use in investigating local natural resources issues with rural women. These techniques are largely drawn from the RRA repertoire but their specific application to gender and the environment makes this volume more than 'just another RRA manual'. There are useful boxed examples of the use of various techniques and a list of books and organisations which offer more information on the subject. Section 3 comprises a number of illustrative case studies by groups of rural women. Section 4 describes some simple techniques which have been applied in conservation projects and case studies of how groups of rural women have used these ideas.
Primary Environmental Care: New Institutional Processes for Supporting Soil and Water Conservation and Harvesting
A brief history of soil and water conservation and harvesting work worldwide concludes that it has been too dominated by external ideas and intervention and it has often been ineffective or harmful. Two new approaches, Rapid Catchment Analysis in Kenya and the work of the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme in India, are introduced as ways in which external institutions can provide more effective support for locally run processes. The steps involved are described in some detail. Performance indicators and the role of support institutions are also described. The report ends with five guidelines to be considered by external support institutions for effective environmental care.
Participatory Land Use Planning: towards a conceptual outline for a practical approach to land use planning in Sahelian countries
This paper is a critique of conventional (FAO) approaches and practices in land use planning in the Sahelian zone of Africa. The need for land use planning in Africa (particularly the Sahel) is outlined in the first section. The second section describes the evolution of land use planning systems, and the process involved in conventional systems. The fourth section discusses problems with the application of land use planning in Africa, the main critiques being the weakness of a hard systems/top-down approach. these are contrasted with the value of a soft systems/insiders' view approach. The fifth section outlines the principles for participatory land use planning (PLUP), that it: produce advice for farmers in a short space of time, which is easy to understand, and which is widely applicable to varying communities in the Sahel. PLUP should be based primarily on local needs, involving land users in the whole planning process, and providing advice which is not prescriptive but facilitative, and which solves specific problems. PLUP should strengthen village level capacities for land resource analysis and structures for management, combining top-down and grassroots information. Suitable advice should be given in a non-prescriptive way, and feedback and monitoring mechanisms should be established. The final section discusses alternatives to conventional/FAO LUP, and a tentative framework for PLUP is outlined.