This paper describes experiences in applying RRA techniques and principles to identify rehabilitation requirements of small irrigation systems in Zimbabwe. The authors conclude that the methodology was appropiate given that the schemes were small. Valuable aspects of using a RRA methodology were judged to be self-imposed discipline, the use of checklists, careful organisation and the use of existing information before visiting the schemes.
The Agro-Forestry Project in Burkina Faso: An Analysis of Popular Participation in Soil and Water Conservation
This is a brief summary of the well-known Projet Agro-Forestier (PAF) in Burkina Faso, which has had much success promoting rock bunds as a soil and water conservation and harvesting method. One reason for success is considered to be the strong involvement of farmers in the design and building of the bunds, which are basically an improvement of a traditional technique. Another factor is the strength of the bunds. The fact that a few women have also been trained is mentioned, but also that more attention should be given to them considering their important role in agriculture.
The report, written for an Arid Lands Workshop, very briefly discusses the main issues in SWC in sub-Saharan Africa. A list of "do's" for participatory soil and water conservation are then briefly discussed, which are mostly to do with the organisational side of SWC, rather than the technical. A short analysis is made of the character of Oxfam-funded SWC projects which concludes that the Oxfam projects are innovative and successful at getting the local population involved when compared to other such projects in the area. Four short case studies, from Burkina Faso, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia, end the report.
Participatory development of a irrigation scheme: The Nyandusi Women Horticultural Scheme, Nyanza Province, Kenya
This paper presents an analysis of the Nyandusi horticultural scheme in Nyanza Province, Kenya. The focus is on how the women members, landowners and agency staff participated at crucial stages of the scheme's design and implementation. Key issues discussed: Lessons for future farmer participation in design and implementation of schemes by themselves; effect of farmer participation had on the final outcome of the scheme; the complexity of the the factors involved in such design.
Participatory Modelling in North Omo, Ethiopia: Investigating the Perceptions of Different Groups Through Models: Training Course Report
The paper deals with the subject of participatory modelling. It asks how such a process can portray a picture of a community that does not merely reflect the view of the dominant group. The paper reports on efforts to compensate for the effects of an often dominant group - men. While on a training course in northern Omo, Ethiopia, a group of women and children were asked to make their own model on the ground adjacent to the men. The issue of water availability, a subject not brought up the men, appeared to be key. As result, the paper concludes by highlighting the need for participation to encompass all groupings within a community.
Primary Environmental Care: New Institutional Processes for Supporting Soil and Water Conservation and Harvesting
A brief history of soil and water conservation and harvesting work worldwide concludes that it has been too dominated by external ideas and intervention and it has often been ineffective or harmful. Two new approaches, Rapid Catchment Analysis in Kenya and the work of the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme in India, are introduced as ways in which external institutions can provide more effective support for locally run processes. The steps involved are described in some detail. Performance indicators and the role of support institutions are also described. The report ends with five guidelines to be considered by external support institutions for effective environmental care.
Pwani is a resettlement community located in a difficult environment adjacent to Lake Nakuru National Park in Kenya. This case study describes how a PRA-derived village level plan of action has helped to mobilise the community to solve its own problems of water access and related forestry and vegetation problems. The report outlines the process and methods used in the PRA, and discusses some of the lessons learned.
Documents a process of community development through PRA, discusses the advantages of the use of PRA, particularly through local community members. The use of a number of techniques are documented, including spatial (maps and transects) and temporal (time and trend lines, seasonal calendars) data as well as numerous ranking excercises. A community action plan was produced, and the methods by which the community began to implement this are given. Attempts to demonstrate that PRA by communities can initiate long term development providing lasting strength and cohesion. A number of illustrations are included.
The Impact of the Catchment Approach to Soil and Water Conservation: Summary of an Impact Study by the Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya
A Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture team used PRA to assess the impact of its Catchment Approach in six catchments, focusing on community level changes. This impact analysis linked differences in the implementation process with differences in results. It was clear that increased levels of community mobilization and involvement led to greater, quicker and replicating changes. One page summaries for each catchment include: process of implementation; changes in productivity; changes in resource degradation; changes in local resilience and vulnerability; changes in self-dependence of local groups; replication; and operational procedures. Two further impact studies are planned; the full report should be finished in November 1994.
This DVD is meant as a visual aid to the participatory tools and techniques as used by the Rural Domestic Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (RDWSSP II) in Nyanza Province, Kenya. It focuses on some of the techniques that were used during a one-week PRA with the project community. The objectives of the programme are to provide safe and accessible drinking water, safe and low cost disposal of human waste, and to ensure user participation and responsibility for facilities. PRA assists the community with collecting and analysing data, identifying problems and developing an action plan (04). The basics of PRA are the techniques, the team and on the spot analysis (05). A variety of techniques were used during the PRA. The film focuses on a few of them: community mapping (07), transect walk (08), semi-structured interview (09), do-it-yourself (outsiders trying village activities) (10), seasonal calendar (11), village institutions (12), wealth ranking (13), gender discussions (14), women's daily activities (15) and men's daily activities (16). The community selected team members who took part in review meetings to analyse the information and discuss the findings. The findings were subsequently presented to the community for verification (17). Having identified the problems a ranking exercise was carried out by different groups to elicit the priorities of women and men (18). This formed the basis for drawing up a community action plan (19). The week concluded with a final presentation to the community (20).
The benefits of using PRA at local level are described, by members of the water and sanitation team who are working with communities in Kenya. Both relevance and participation are increased, and the locals become partners in the project. However, PRA is thought to be demanding and 'very involving'.
This case study describes the Siaya Health Education, Water and Sanitation Project (SHEWAS) which was implemented by the NGO CARE International in Siaya District in Kenya in 1990. It focuses on the use of PRA as a means of stimulating community participation in the identification and planning of water and sanitation micro- projects. The SHEWAS approach is outlined and some of the achievements and results, and lessons learned, are discussed.