It draws on the experience of the author with regard to socio-economic surveys carried out in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. It considers problems in sampling, farmers' responses, the interview situation, survey staff, and various problems with regard to recording accuracy and data processing. The paper concludes by noting 20 key aspects that should be taken into account when designing surveys. These include: (1) careful selection and training of staff; (2) the importance of learning the farming systems in advance; (3) where possible to choose farmers for whom the key parameters are known from other sources; (4) utilize at least one full time supervisor resident in the survey area with independent transport; and (5) allow two thirds of the total period for activities other than the field survey, ie. data processing.
Contains sections on the following: what is wealth ranking; why is wealth ranking needed; background work needed before carrying out wealth ranking; actual informant ranking; computing the actual score and grouping; an example of wealth ranking from Maasailand, Kenya, and from Meru district, Kenya; and finally, gives some suggested further reading. An appendix contains a check-list to help those wishing to carry out a wealth ranking exercise.
Participatory Modelling in North Omo, Ethiopia: Investigating the Perceptions of Different Groups Through Models: Training Course Report
The paper deals with the subject of participatory modelling. It asks how such a process can portray a picture of a community that does not merely reflect the view of the dominant group. The paper reports on efforts to compensate for the effects of an often dominant group - men. While on a training course in northern Omo, Ethiopia, a group of women and children were asked to make their own model on the ground adjacent to the men. The issue of water availability, a subject not brought up the men, appeared to be key. As result, the paper concludes by highlighting the need for participation to encompass all groupings within a community.
Fish from Malawi's lakes provide approximately 70% of the country's animal protein, although as the population has increased per capita consumption has declined. Smallholder aquaculture is expanding rapidly in the southern part of the country and has the potential to alleviate some of these shortfalls in fish supply by providing a cheap protein source (01). The film looks at a collaborative research programme developed by the Fisheries Department, the International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) funded by GTZ, and the University of Malawi. The programme aims to develop aquaculture technology which is appropriate to the needs of rural farmers (02). Constant evaluation and feedback from farmers to researchers means that the research can be refined according to farmer's needs (03). While there had been a rapid expansion in fish farming in Malawi, catches were variable and often poor. The problems were due to a lack of suitable fish species and feeds and poor water fertility (06), as well as farmers' inability to invest and the lack of integration of fish farming into the traditional farming system (07). An on-farm survey of resources and farming systems allowed researchers to prioritise research needs and develop aquaculture models relevant to the local agricultural situation (07). Methods of increasing overall productivity were investigated, including assessing the use of grass as an input (08), compost technologies for improving water fertility (10), and integrating agriculture and aquaculture systems (12). Methods of harvesting fish using locally available materials were also investigated (14). Open days at the aquaculture centre provide opportunities for farmers and researchers to interact. Farmers also participate in on-farm discussion and testing of technologies (19). The constant evaluation and feedback from farmers to researchers means that research agendas can be refined to meet farmers needs (21).
The "beans-games": experiences with a variations of wealth ranking in the Kivu Region, Eastern Zaire
It concerns a variation in wealth ranking exercise that was used in the context of a mid-term field survey. It involved socioeconomic analysis and differentiation of the target population of a rural development project in Zaire and was funded by GTZ. The paper lays out the procedure, and briefly reports on its findings; giving a justification for the use of its methodology.
Contains the proceedings of a workshop held to discuss farmer participatory research in Ethiopia. The purpose of the workshop was to review the extent of peasant farmers' participation in agricultural research in Ethiopia and to discuss how best it could be enhanced. A number of short presentations were made by various organisations on their experiences and various aspects of farmer participatory research, including on-farm trials, participation in technology development and transfer, evaluation of technologies and indigenous technology.
The Nhlangwini Integrated Rural Development Project aims to empower local people, in order that they may improve their quality of life, by helping them develop strategies for addressing basic needs. The Nhlangwini Ward is situated in southern KwaZulu, South Africa. Three workshops were held over a period of three months during 1989. The first examined development problems in the area; the second specifically probed those problems associated with family planning; the third was a development planning workshop, employing visual techniques described in some detail by the paper. Participants were asked to draw local resources by imagining they could view the area from a helicopter. The process of adopting visual techniques has resulted in a change in emphasis - as a result of findings, the integrated development programme has switched approaches with regard to issues facing women, and in terms of its goal setting mechanisms.
This bibliography identifies literature which focuses on participatory research methodologies with a view to providing support for research into food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Much of the material contains participatory research in a general context - what it is, its evolution, underlying epistemological and theoretical issues - but the emphasis is on the use of participatory research tools and techniques with reference to research in rural Africa, in particular in the fields of local agricultural and environmental knowledge. The material is listed alphabetically, also categorised according to subject and region in a subject index.
Draft copy of the final report of the South African participatory poverty assessment. See record 2036 for final copy.
Methods on the move : a review of the veterinary uses of participatory approaches and methods focussing on experiences in dryland Africa
In this literature review, the author, in describing the origins of participatory approaches and methods, discusses their application in animal health services and research in developing countries. The focus is on dryland areas of Africa particularly pastoral and agropastoral areas of the Greater Horn of Africa. The author reports that most experiences with veterinary uses of participatory approaches and methods remains with community based animal health projects and have proved to be more effective in comparison to more conventional approaches to service delivery. He also contends that while participatory methods are being used increasingly by epidemiologists, in general, there is a continued reliance on conventional survey tools such as questionnaires. He is of the view that as veterinary epidemiology has a history of borrowing from other disciplines it may be helpful to consider participatory methods including quantitative and qualitative perspectives and enhance the understanding of animal health and well being.
In 2006 oil was discovered in Uganda. With the country’s economy highly dependent on fuel imports, national oil production could make a long-term contribution to poverty alleviation. But for sustainable development to occur, participatory governance must ensure that people are involved in the decision-making processes affecting their lives. This paper, therefore, first analyses the adequacy of the existing legal framework on access to information and participation. Its findings show that although law and policy in Uganda indicate certain efforts to open up environmental decision-making processes to public influence, this is not the case in the oil production sector. On the basis of interviews and focus group studies it further examines the main practical barriers to better public participation. The author finds that in practice, public participation is subject to several financial, technical and political constraints. The culture of secrecy within government bodies, weak civil society structures as well as the politics of patronage remain substantive challenges for the fair and equitable management of natural resources in Uganda.