This document is a report of a workshop held by NEPAN. The role of communication in the development process was discussed and also the experiences of information services adopted by individual members of NEPAN and member organisations. These discussions were then used as the basis for developing appropriate communication strategies for NEPAN.
This lengthy and detailed document represents a summarised report of the second Internal Evaluation of an ongoing Fourth phase implementation of the above named project in Bangladesh. The objective of this evaluation was both to assess the progress
of the project and to test some new methodological approaches that had been applied in order to further strengthen grassroots participation. The methods utilised were mostly PRA and they were applied at the beneficiary level. The emphasis was laid on the potentials of the participants to evaluate the present situation and outline realistic future options. The document is split into six major chapters which in turn outline the Terms of Reference, a discussion of the principles of PRA and a short introduction to the methods applied. Chapter three presents the executive summary which leads to a more extensive discussion of the findings in Chapter four. The observers comments and recommendations are used to draw some conclusions applicable for the on-going fourth phase implementation and for the planning of a fifth phase. The last chapter includes some appendices of the basic orientation and
results from the evaluation. A bibliography is added at the back.
Forestry for sustainable rural development : a review of Ford Foundation supported community forestry programs in Asia.
Of particular interest in this review maybe a chapter on the development and application of new social science methodologies by some of the community forestry programmes. Examples of the ways in which participatory research methods and specifically PRA have been used are given. The use of Process Documentation, a research methods for institutional change, is also described briefly.
Capacity-building in participatory upland watershed planning, monitoring and evaluation : a resource kit.
This resource kit for trainers has been prepared to help develop facilitators for watershed programes enabling farmers to own and implement their own watershed management plans. Key aspects covered include, facilitating farmers to analyse their current situations, visualise a better future and the steps needed to get there and develop simple yet meaningful indicators to evaluate and monitor their progress along the way.
A report of poverty consultations in four countries -dialogues with poor people in rural and ruban localities aimed at informing Canadian aid policy. It attempts to provide the reader with a snapshot of the lives and concerns of the people represented in each of the four country consultations. It does not advance a definitve notion or universally applicable set of indicators of well-being, but refers to the great variability that exists between and among even the communities represented and the indivudals within them.
This article explains how participatory approaches are now being developed to tackle the triple taboo subjects of sex, gender and death, which are enshrined in the HIV pandemic. It describes the exciting work to tackle the challenges facing development workers in helping people overcome their fears and address these important issues. It explores how more conventional top-down approaches to health education, which ignore the roles of gender and conflict, have largely failed to help people change behaviour - they may bring issues to greater public attention, but dial to change most people's personal actions in their private lives. It describes how recent, more innovative approaches have drawn on the rich wealth of participatory development experience in Asia and how these approaches are now beginning to help individuals, their peers and communities cope with the AIDS tragedy for themselves. The article also describes an understanding of how behaviour changes, in order to do so more effectively.
The Asian Coalition for Housing Rights has had great success with community-to-community exchange programmes across Asia. Video supplements this process and allows more communities to actually 'see' what's happening with other poor communities in Asia. Groups have found this type of documentation and presentation easier and more productive than writing reports, particularly for confidence building. This story tells about the use of video for urban poor solutions in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. In December 1999 and January 2000, the largest slum community was facing eviction threats from government under pressure to redevelop the land. While having support from the local Municipality for land-sharing alternatives, they needed to influence government at a higher level as the Municipality had little control - the plans for eviction were directed from above, by people in national government. A short 10-minute video was made of the work ACHR was doing involving partnerships with government organisations and slum communities, offering an alternative process to forced evictions. The message was conveyed to the Prime Minister via video, whose response was very positive. The author concludes by reflecting on the potential for using video in even more participatory ways.
Amidst the rhetoric of participation, evidence from some contexts suggests that the very projects and processes that appear inclusive and transformative may support a status quo that is highly inequitable for women. This paper attempts to address some of the questions and challenges surrounding participatory development, in terms of who participates, in what and on what basis, who benefits and who loses out. Highlighting some of the tensions that run through 'gender-aware' participatory development, it draws on empirical material from Africa and Asia to explore the gender dimensions of participation in projects, planning and policy processes. In doing so, it reflects on strategies and tactics that have been used in efforts to make participatory development more gender sensitive. Much depends, the paper suggests, on how 'gender' is interpreted and deployed in development settings. The pervasive slippage between 'involving women' and 'addressing gender' may be tactically expedient, but it provokes a series of questions about the extent to which current understandings of 'gender' in development mask other inequalities and forms of exclusion. Making a difference, the paper suggests, requires rethinking 'gender' and addressing more directly the issues of power and powerlessness that lie at the heart of both Gender and Development (GAD) and participatory development.
This Framework for Mainstreaming Participatory Development Processes into Bank Operations presents an overview of how participatory development processes fit into the operations of the Asian Development Bank, and of how these processes will be systematically incorporated into its business practices. The Framework complements other recently established policies that have provided for greater openness and accountability by the Bank in regard to its operations. The aim is to catalyse a wider sense of ownership of the development activities that the Bank supports. An overview of participatory development is presented, while discussing the benefits and risks that are associated with it, as well as the mechanisms through which participation can be facilitated. The operational implications of mainstreaming participatory development for both the Bank and agencies in borrowing countries, and the operational costs of doing so, are discussed. The approach that the Bank will follow for mainstreaming participatory development into its operations is further elaborated.
This manual presents methods by which the poor and the poorest can be identified so that they can be reached by the services of microfinance institutions - and so that the non-poor can be excluded from them. Whilst poverty targeting has long been regarded as difficult and costly, the authors argue that these methods, developed through field experience, are practical and cost-effective. The CASHPOR (Credit and Savings for the Hard-Core Poor) Network has developed a House Index that is adapted to the house styles of all countries in Asia where the Network programmes are operating. The Small Enterprise Foundation (SEF) has taken the methodology of Participatory Wealth Ranking and developed it to become an effective and cost effective means of identifying the poor. The manual gives practical details of these two methods for use by microfinance practitioners and others.