This paper follows from the recognition that meeting food needs requires that women's roles in production and food systems are taken into account. International agricultural research centres have paid little attention to the demands of domestic post-harvest technologies, being given a low priority in the determination of research agenda. Gender-specific varietal preferences for seed or stock selection have also been ignored. In addition to methodological weaknesses built into current research programming, insufficient attention has been paid to the institutional barriers which inhibit the exchange of experience and information between women and agricultural researchers and extension agents. The paper begins by suggesting why gender matters. The second section discusses seed technology and gender issues. The third section raises questions of methodology (discussing socio-economic research, farming systems research and policy research). [This section may be of particular interest to PRA collection users]. Further sections discuss research-extension linkages, and the measurement of inputs. The final three sections are case studies of the impact of technical change in agriculture on women in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Throughout the world, forestry departments have been rethinking the way they work to meet the challenges of a changing sector. Management that emphasises collaboration with stakeholders rather than regulation makes sense in this new context, but it involves risks. Jamaica is notable in the Carribbean region for its willingness to meet these risks head on, and in doing so has begun to create a new and positive dynamic between the Forestry Department and the people it serves. This paper presents the results of research by the Caribbean Natural Resources Institute and the Jamaica Forestry Department (FD) on one component of Jamaica's new approach: the establishment of two Local Forest Management Committees (LFMCs) to involve stakeholders in managing forest reserves. Eighteen months after their establishment, the LFMCs have become a channel of communication between the FD and local stakeholders that is valued by both. They have contributed to the DepartmentÆs watershed management plan; suggested ways in which forest management can be improved through collaboration with stakeholders; identified opportunities for increasing the contribution of forest reserves to local development; and translated some of these into small but ambitious projects. They are also having some influence on national policy and the institutional culture of the FD. Despite their progress, the LFMCs face a range of challenges, which this paper elaborates along with lessons for the development of LFMCs.
Evaluation of Caribbean experiences in participatory planning and management of marine and coastal resources
This technical report from the Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI) reviews and draws lessons from recent experiences in participatory planning and management of marine and coastal resources in the Caribbean. The specific areas examined include protected areas (PAs), coastal zone management (CZM), and ecotourism (ET). The review is limited to the insular Caribbean, but the authors believe this region to be representative, and that the lessons drawn from this experience could be widely applicable. A general survey of experiences was undertaken, and scientific experiences of PAs, CZM and ET considered to be the most representative were selected for in depth analysis. Brief case studies of these experiences are presented in separate appendices in the report. The case studies include experiences from Gulf of Paria Fisheries Management Project, Trinidad; St. LuciaÆs Protected Areas System Plan; Samanß Bay Biosphere Reserve Planning, Dominican Republic; Environment and Coastal Resources Project, the OECS (Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States) countries; the Windward Islands (Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) Nature and Heritage Tourism Project; La Parguera Fisheries Reserve, Puerto Rico; Ecotourism in the Carib Territory, Dominica; Soufriere Marine Management Area, St.Lucia; Negril Environmental Protection Area, Jamaica; and Pointe de Sable National Park, St. Lucia. The report examines the concepts of participation in the context of PAs, CZM and ET, and the evolution of regional experience from the 1970s and onwards. Experiences up to date are reviewed and evaluated. Finally, a synthesising analysis provides lessons learned from the combined experiences