This reports the findings of a village appraisal carried out in North England by the parish council. The purpose was to gain a better idea of local opinions to inform council decisions on a range of topics. The booklet gives overviews of the locality's main characteristics, population, housing, transport, local needs and concerns and suggested options for the future.
As part of a course in forestry and participation, 27 forestry officials from Africa, Asia and Scotland spent 10 days in County Kilkenny, Ireland, using PRA and visualisation methods to help local people develop a local forestry action plan. During meetings with local people, visual tools were used to encourage them to express their preferences about the environment. Methods used included resource and social mapping, Venn diagrams, and matrix ranking or tree species preferences. Local people's views were relayed to the local council, thus giving them a say in environmental management. One local council member recognised the need for better communication and broader consultation between the council and local people.
Challenging 'community' definitions in sustainable natural resource management : the case of wild mushroom harvesting in the USA
In the light of the growing trend towards devolving natural resource management to local communities this paper argues that there is need for care to be taken in defining the community.
The need to think beyond residential proximity as the criteria for community is examined, especially with regards to non-equilibrium natural resources, where spatial and temporal distribution of the resource varies and transhumance strategies are commonly adopted. A case study of wild mushroom harvesting in the Pacific North West of the USA illustrates the importance of not overlooking the role played by external stakeholders whose livlihoods can be significantly affected by decisions regarding the use of the natural resource in question.
Finally, the authors offer suggestions on how an environment conducive to sustainable and profitable harvesting of non-equilibrium natural resources can be encouraged at different levels.
This paper argues the case for participative ecodesign as a means of conducting future rangeland research and development in Australia. To embark on this path it will be necessary for the rangeland science community to critically question traditions and myths which shape current practices. These include current concepts of extension, technology transfer, community and human communication. Research has shown that attitudes of rangeland decisions makers are rarely a constraint to dealing with issues of land degradation and management and technology adoption. Attempts to change attitudes are likely to be of little value. A recognition of the unequal power relations implicit in traditional practice is a necessary precondition for the emergence of participative processes which reverse the history of subjection of grazier knowledge and values by institutionalised authority. [Author's abstract].
This paper concerns agricultural extension and technology transfer to livestock farmers in New Zealand. Data shows that those farmers who have adopted farm inputs an appropriate technology achieve higher productivity and profitability. This raises the questions of why the rest have not. This paper presents some farm and farmer information gathered in the farmer first research programme to provide insights into this question, and draws some conclusions for those charged with delivering technology transfer programmes. These conclusions emphasise the diverse constraints farmers face, which must be taken into account in further technology development.
This article reports a survey of farmers in Young Shire, New South Wales, Australia, in which their perceptions of soil salting on their land and some views on its wider incidence and importance were explored. The survey (involving questionnaires and interviews) found that many farmers had a salinity problem and were acquainted with its symptoms and processes. This has implications for extension and group activity aimed at the salinity problem. these implications and some innovative group extension methods are discussed. RRA is identified as a potential methodology for future action research.
Farmers' Needs for Management, Research and Extension, and Policy - Findings of a Farmers' Workshop and their Implications
This paper reports the findings of a workshop attended by farmers in New Zealand. Farmers' objectives, their circumstances and the constraints they face are central to any consideration of ways of improving farming systems. The management, research and extension, and policy needs of the farmers attending this workshop were diverse. This diversity was linked to the degree of diversity in business objectives and management structures on their farms. More research on these issues across a spectrum of farmers is required to ensure that research and technology transfer meet their needs. Most of the discussion relates to wool and meat products.
This chapter from a guide to participatory land and water resource management, designed for community leaders and extension officers in Australia, discusses participatory planning for community action. Its main points are: the planning process consists of situational analysis, goal-setting, selection of solutions, development of implementation plans and monitoring and evaluation; seven steps are given to provide understanding of institutional planning undertaken by various agencies in the district; eight steps work through community planning by developing managerial skills; and eight techniques for improving participatory planning are described in detail. The chapter is written in a comprehensible and interactive style.
RRAs were conducted in two local Landcare areas of Australia by the students and staff of Charles Sturt University-Riverina. The ethos of Landcare is based on "groups of people who work together to care for the land in their local area" and it was felt that a PRA/RRA approach might provide a solution to the problems faced by Landcare committees and extension workers. The paper describes the organisation and methods of the RRAs from data collection phase through to data analysis and feedback to participants. "Successful team building and goal setting" were seen as the key processes in doing an RRA. A discussion of the adaptation and applicability of the RRA methodology to the Australian context, including "institutional barriers to an RRA approach", concludes the paper.
This report presents the results of a village appraisal questionnaire conducted in three parishes in northern England. The questionnaire addressed education, transport, housing, recreation, services and general issues in the communities. The tabulated responses to the questions on local peopleÆs opinions on these issues are presented. There are also short discussions of particular issues such as road safety, litter etc., and of what should be done.
This short video shows the use of participatory mapping and action planning processes in discussions about the management of the Solway Firth, Scotland. People with various interests participated in the meetings. Groups mapped the area and suggested ideas for changes. These were then scored and discussed, leading to the creation of action plans with achievable aims. The video also presents reflections by workshop participants on the participatory appraisal process. Among the comments are that it facilitated the focusing of ideas, working together, and helped overcome mistrust between the users of the Solway and other groups.
This report presents the results of a village appraisal questionnaire conducted in a community in northern England. The questionnaire addressed health, education, elderly, transport, housing, services, employment and village life issues in the community. The tabulated responses to the questions on local people's opinions on these issues are presented. There are also short discussions of particular issues such as road safety, litter etc., and of what should be done.