This article is a case study of the author's participatory research with the Annette Lomond garment workers' co-operative in the North East of England. It discusses the relationship between the researcher and the participants, power imbalances, accountability, empowerment, effects of the research project, and presentation of findings. She concludes that the aim of uniting research with action and education is not always possible within one project. This alters the balance of the relationship and the nature of accountability.
Farmers' Needs for Management, Research and Extension, and Policy - Findings of a Farmers' Workshop and their Implications
This paper reports the findings of a workshop attended by farmers in New Zealand. Farmers' objectives, their circumstances and the constraints they face are central to any consideration of ways of improving farming systems. The management, research and extension, and policy needs of the farmers attending this workshop were diverse. This diversity was linked to the degree of diversity in business objectives and management structures on their farms. More research on these issues across a spectrum of farmers is required to ensure that research and technology transfer meet their needs. Most of the discussion relates to wool and meat products.
This volume of the Gatekeeper series from the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) looks at the economic education efforts of Highlander Research and Education Centre (Tennessee, USA) in Appalachia and its role in promoting community development. It gives a background to social problems in Appalachia and describes the Highlander project. The project concentrated on three rural communities (Dungannon, Virginia; Jelico, Tennessee; and Ivanhoe, Virginia) and was oriented towards helping communities gain knowledge necessary for local development. Community groups were offered technical and educational support for grassroots economic leadership development through a participatory process where the community could assess their own situation, and define and implement strategies for themselves. Part of the participatory methodology were oral history, community surveys, community mapping and drawings, decision-maker interviews, videos and readings, brainstorming and feasibility studies, and cultural components. Finally the outcomes of the project are examined.