Participatory Rural Appraisal was conducted in two villages in Southern India in order to supplement formal survey information. One of the objectives was to develop a procedure for determining emic indicators of health and nutrition security. Four types of PRA were employed: i) participatory mapping (conducted separately by women and men) - to identify 'high' and 'low' risk households; ii) food charts - participants use beans to indicate the relative importance of foods consumed; iii) women's activity chart - beans are used to indicate the relative time spent on daily activities. iv) seasonality chart - this method was conducted with small groups (differentiated by gender and caste) to understand the yearly changes in rainfall, harvest of staples, food consumption, labour demand, childhood illness and women's illness. An ethnographer used in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group and participant observation to conduct six household case studies in the two survey villages. The PRA techniques generated emic indicators of food-security which could be compared with the etic indicators of the formal survey.
Convening and Facilitating Rapid Action Learning Workshops for the Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G)
These guidance notes intend to inform and support all who seek to sponsor, convene, facilitate and report on Rapid Action Learning (RAL) workshops anywhere in India and to contribute to the quality, sustainability and timely implementation of the national Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) campaign (this translates to clean India mission).
They are primarily for districts convened at divisional level but can also be adapted for blocks at district level and drawn on for workshops at state and national levels. They draw on the approach, methods and lessons learnt so far through previous RAL workshops in India.
This article describes the adaptation of the matrix scoring technique to investigate local perceptions of agroecosystem properties - productivity, stability, sustainability and equity. Methods discussed include transects, mapping and modelling, matrix ranking of productivity, and matrix ranking of the productivity of different crop combinations, seasonal calendars and timelines.
The Women's Development Project (WDP) of CARE-Bangladesh trains women in 441 villages as local health educators. A mapping activity was conducted in a village in Tangail with thirteen of these women. In three "para" (neighbourhood) groups, the women drew maps using sticks and flour, showing the households that they worked with and which new health practices (family planning, latrine etc) they had adopted. The maps (which are given in Figure 1) made the health workers aware of their achievements and helped them plan for the future. The article ends with a list of uses of participatory mapping in WDP's work as a whole.
Process Notes on the Training of Trainers and the National PRA Workshop of the Self-Help Support Programme of Interco-operation, Sri Lanka
This comprehensive report, written in narrative style, describes the process of organising a full-scale national workshop on PRA in Sri Lanka. The workshop also provided the opportunity to train four trainers of trainers. In preparation, the trainee facilitators explored two approaches to PRA training (methods vs. attitudes), and selected key themes for the programme. The activities of both the planning stage, the actual workshop and the review are explained in detail (eg games, buzz sessions, role play, frameworks for planning and evaluation, materials /background articles used). The field work was carried out in two villages in Tangalle District with the idea of developing a strategy for SSP to follow up. Organisational aspects of the field work are covered, but not findings nor descriptions of the actual activities
A team of researchers from the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) knowledge hub at the Institute of Development Studies, WaterAid and Praxis adopted an Immersive Research Approach (IRA) to try to gain in-depth understanding of ground realities and community perspectives relevant for the Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G). They sought to learn and be open to emerging findings, while keeping a focus on behaviour change.
This note describes what they did, what they learnt, challenges they faced, and lessons and guidance for its use by others.
Validating the Wealth Ranking by Participatory Rural Appraisal Vs Formal Survey in Identifying the Rural Poor
This paper a) identifies classifiers of economic status used by rural communities in the area studied - Tamil Nadu, India, b) attempts to determine why local communitites and development professionals have used 'incorrect' criteria for this classification and c)compares standard economic household rankings with rankings using PRA methods.