This newsletter is a special issue on trying to bridge the gap between donors' resources and their effective use in targeting the poor, through the use of community development funds. Community development funds function like banks, but can work more flexibly and at different levels. Several case studies are presented from countries in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and southern Africa, and a number of tips and advantages in setting up a community development fund are outlined. Some of these are that they: " Set new standards of transparency and accountability; " Make multiple, small-scale investments in many community-initiated urban development projects; " Support tangible outputs of value to the urban poor, in different sectors and areas; " Help establish and strengthen long-term partnerships between community organisations, municipal authorities and the private sector, while stimulating new working practices; " Provide poor communities and their organisations with opportunities to learn by doing.
This paper describes the process of a workshop, held in Hanoi, Vietnam, which used a participatory curriculum development (PCD) methodology to create an agroforestry curriculum development guide. The paper introduces the underlying concepts of PCD and reflects on some lessons learned about the process. It also discusses some possible reasons behind the success of the workshop in terms of the participatory process applied, the content, and the final product.|By the end of the workshop, participants had, together, written a draft guide. After review and editing, this guide aims to support the development of agroforestry education and training programmes in the South-East Asia region, and enhance the teaching and learning process of agroforestry.
A guide to learning agroforestry: a framework for developing agroforestry curricula in Southeast Asia
This guidebook, produced by the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) and the Southeast Asian Network for Agroforestry Education (SEANAFE), aims to provide the foundation for guiding agroforestry learning in Southeast Asia. It is meant to serve as a tool for educational institutions to address the rapidly changing area of integrated natural resource management.
The guide is the result of a collaborative process where members of SEANAFE have drawn on their experiences from agroforestry education and curriculum development as well as agroforestry research and development. It is oriented towards the following:
À Providing a general guide about the curriculum development process
À Presenting an overview of the contents that should be in focus in agroforestry education
À Emphasising that practical exercises are essential for attaining agroforestry education objectives
The guide is divided into two parts, the first of which focuses on participatory curriculum development and teaching methods. The second part develops a framework for agroforestry curricula. This includes a look at concepts and principles, at systems, practices and technologies, at institutions and policies related to agroforestry and lastly at advancing agroforestry practices. Since this guide is generic, further elaboration and local adaptation is needed regarding contents and especially regarding the practical exercises. It should be complemented with local information and materials.
This article details the rationale for the Water Equity in the Lifescape and Landscape Study (WELLS), which was carried out in the Philippines and Vietnam. Household water security is defined in terms of quantity, quality and access. The Household Water Security Mapping Tool (HWSMT) is explained in detail. The HWSMT is a rapid, participatory and relatively precise assessment tool of household level water security that is visual in nature. It is comparable among water user groups, allowing the identification of any inequities, and provides an opportunity to create a better picture of water scarcity that better reflects local realities. The strengths and limitations of the tool are briefly discussed. The article concludes by looking at the lessons learned and policy recommendations arising from the study.
The Participatory Approaches Learning Study (PALS) examined the potential for increasing stakeholder participation in DFID country programmes and at DFID's experience of delivering aid through participatory approaches. Its recommendations include proposals on staff development, on ways to make the Project Cycle Management System more flexible and accountable, and on making participation a stronger characteristic of DFID itself. The two-year research project involved separate studies of four of DFID's geographical departments - DFID-India, DFID-Bangladesh, South East Asia Division, and the Western and North Africa Department, which included India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ghana, Egypt and Nigeria. This report is a synthesis of the main findings and lessons from each of the geographical studies and includes Operational lessons from PALS, Participation and Project Cycle Management, Training Needs and Participation and Institutionalising Participation.
This book examines an approach to evaluation that enables citizens and professionals alike to jointly assess the extent to which the benefits of development are shared - and by whom. It provides a variety of articles from different authors, covering critical themes such as ethics, techniques, case studies, historic reflections, and invitations to action. It addresses the tensions and questions that emerge from the notion of participation such as who has the right to evaluate whom, does the language that makes up the participatory discourse itself limit the practice of participation, etc. It highlights the dangers of evaluations that claim to be participatory but are not, and offers ideas about working in a variety of new directions
Rather than challenging the universal validity of PRA, this discussion paper focuses on the practical task of "doing PRAs" in a new and alien context. The authors advocate the acknowledgement and acceptance of local cultural trends, power relations and structures of authority when undertaking participatory research. This will allow to work with, rather than around these factors. Hence, the proposed "Vietnamisation" of PRA so as to allow local voices to shape the values and techniques of PRA itself. But, just how Vietnamised can PRA become until it comes into conflict with international liberal PRA values? This broad discussion originated in a workshop organised in Hanoi on Community Research Methods in February and March 1996. The issues covered by the paper include: introducing PRA and PRA values in Vietnamese communities, gender, local leadership and dominance; and international donors and PRA. Methodological issues covered are: sampling, recording of research information, interviews, focus group discussions and mapping.
A study of six indigenous peoples' communities involving field research on the main concerns and needs at the local level as well as organisational capacities. This was undertaken by the Institute of Philippine Culture (IPC) so as to facilitate the involvement of indigenous people in the country's democratisation processes. Communites were selected on the grounds of geographical spread and development issues affecting the indigenous groups. The research was carried out during a period of six months, involving secondary data review in the preparation phase and PRA investigation in the fieldwork phase. The latter mainly focused on diagramming visual sharing, and mapping activities. The research aimed to obtain a preliminary assessment of rural indigneous people's livelihoods, especially issues concerning resource tenure and day-to-day existence. In particular, farming and fishing systems were analysed, relationships with outsiders explored and the issue of ancestral domains discussed. The indigenous group profiles are the following: 1) Ifugaos in Malabing Valley, Nueva Vizcaya 2)Manobos in Magpet, North Cotabato 3)B'laans in Polomolok, South Cotabato 4)Tagbanwas in Coron, Palawan 5)Dumagats in Casiguran, Aurora 6)Sulodnons in Lambunao, Iloilo.
The Use Of Participatory Action Research In The Development Of A Community Managed Health Program In Baragay Pinagsanhan
The paper is a descriptive and explorative study on the experience of the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction in the conduct of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and its contributions in the development of a community managed health programme in Barangay Pinagsanhan in Cavite, Philippines. The experience showed that the initial conduct of PAR helped in the codification of the people's concept of health. It also familiarised them with a more systematic learning process for the planning and implementation of a more culturally-sensitive community health programme. Recommendations to maximise contributions of the PAR exercise in enhancing community cooperation and the villagers' critical thinking capability are suggested. The institutionalisation of PAR as a management tool for the planning and implementation of community programmes is also discussed.
This paper reviews the main characteristics of the Farmer Field School approach in Indonesia. It provides an account of the origins, orientation and farmer-centred objectives of the approach. Focusing on integrated pest management (IPM) it discusses issues of education and extension, farmer participation and farmers' knowledge and expertise. Finally, it illustrates the characteristics differentiating Field Schools from more conventional agricultural extension programmes.
Activities For Developing Linkages And Cooperative Exchange Among Farmers' Organisations, NGOs, GOs And Researchers: Case Study Of An NGO-Coodinated Integrated Pest Management Project In Indonesia
This paper describes World Education's experiences in supporting local NGOs and farmers organisations in developing activities which promote cooperative exchange among farmers, NGOs, GOs, and researchers for the development of community-based sustainable agricultureprogrammes focused initially on Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Through the development of these programmes the project aims to assist Indonesian farm families to develop critical, ecological, decision-making, and leadership skills that reduce environmental degradation and increase productivity in their farming systems. Activities of IPM farmer field schools, cross-visits, collaborative linkages with researchers, and training of farmer trainers are discussed. These activities have been effective in a) initiating and establishing a group learning process among farmers in their communities and b) linking farmer field school groups together in active local networks.
People, realities, negotiations and other love songs: some thoughts on participatory monitoring and evaluation, development cooperation and funding organisations
Brief critical evaluation and discussion of PRA and especially participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) drawing from experience in the Philippines. Covers ethical, social and institutional issues offering a valid critique of the institutionalisation of PRA and PME.
Training in the use of RRA for baseline data collection and target group identification was conducted in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, as part of a joint venture between the Governments of Indonesia and Canada. Nine trainees (from government agencies and NGOs) took part in the six week training, half of which was spent in a remote village area. This report describes the "set routine" of fieldwork, where a mixture of RRA (participatory mapping) and baseline data collection techniques were used. The results of the target group identification strategy are discussed in terms of successes and problem areas. The trainees' responses to using RRA techniques and "the potential for institutionalizing RRA/PRA" into official planning procedures in Indonesia conclude the report.