Report of a "training for trainers" workshop in PLA. The workshop had a special focus on behavioural aspects of PLA and also on its use in stages of project planning other than needs assessment, where it is most commonly utilised, including its application in project monitoring and also in rural extension activities.
Rural people's knowledge and extension practice: trees, people and communities in Zimbabwe's communal lands
This paper discusses the nature of local people's knowledge and the important role it can play in fostering a participatory development process in rural areas. The paper draws its case material from two tree planting and woodland manangement projects in Zimbabwe (Shurugwi Agroforestry Project and Zvishavane-Chivi indigenous woodland management project). First, the conceptual framework is analysed in which rural people's knowledge has been placed, in particular by people from other cultures. The second part of the paper assesses how official knowledge has been promulgated among rural people in Zimbabwe by way of historical analysis of forestry extension practices. Thirdly attention is given to how knowledge is structured at the local level. Finally two projects are examined which attempt to bridge the gap between official and rural people's knowledge. Although some RRA methods are employed, such as ranking tree species, the methodology and sources of information are not made clear. (Based on the authors' summary)
Discusses an ENDA project working on community woodlands, where community theatre was used to stimulate discussion on the local forest resource. Group discussions focused on the woodlands, trees and changes in the forest over time. There was agreement that there were few trees, and that they were declining in number, due to drought, overpopulation and mismanagement. Constraints and potential solutions were identified. There were few gender differences in awareness. The play was created from the key issues identified by these small group discussions by improvisation of scenes in the home, field and forest. It was felt that these plays were interesting and constructive, and that the momentum came from within the community with little external direction needed, and community "ownership" of the theatre.